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A Teaching Hospital Challenge: Balancing Patient Care and Medical Student Education. [Insert Name of Presenter]. Ethics Resource Center American Medical Association. A Challenge. Under what conditions should medical students be allowed to perform procedures on patients?.

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a teaching hospital challenge balancing patient care and medical student education
A Teaching Hospital Challenge: Balancing Patient Care and Medical Student Education

[Insert Name of Presenter]

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

a challenge
A Challenge
  • Under what conditions should medical students be allowed to perform procedures on patients?

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

the patient
The Patient
  • Mr. Harvey is a 57-year-old patient with a history of COPD and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • He is admitted with a 3-day history of fever, productive cough, and shortness of breath.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Chest X-ray reveals a right lower lobe pneumonia.
  • IV antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

gaining iv access
Gaining IV Access
  • Mr. Harvey’s peripheral circulation is poor and several attempts to place a peripheral IV were unsuccessful.
  • Dr. Gage, the senior resident, decides to insert a subclavian line to administer the IV antibiotics.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

the medical students
The Medical Students
  • Dr. Gage is supervising 2 third-year medical students who are in week 6 of their 8-week internal medicine rotation.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

medical students experience
Medical Students’ Experience
  • One of the 2 medical students, Mr. Smith, has successfully placed central lines on several occasions.
  • Miss Rogers has been unsuccessful on 3 previous attempts with different patients.
  • On Miss Rogers’ last attempt, Dr. Gage had to step in to place the line herself, following her “3 sticks and you’re out” rule.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

ethical dilemma
Ethical Dilemma
  • Should Dr. Gage permit Miss Rogers to attempt a central line placement in Mr. Harvey?

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

finding a balance
Finding a Balance
  • The primary challenge for Dr. Gage is finding the appropriate balance between providing quality patient care and fostering a learning environment for medical students.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

relevant considerations
Relevant Considerations
  • Assessing risk to patients of having a medical student perform the procedure.
  • Informing the patient of the student’s participation and ensuring the patient’s willingness.
  • Equitable distribution of the burden of medical education among patients.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

1 assessing risk
1. Assessing Risk

Dr. Gage should consider:

  • Inherent risk of the procedure for a specific patient.
  • Incremental risk of allowing a student to perform the procedure.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

key determinants of inherent risk
Key Determinants of Inherent Risk
  • Patient-Related
    • Clinical status- eg, stable, emergent
    • Co-morbidities- eg, obesity, diabetes
  • Procedure-Related
    • Invasiveness of procedure
    • Technical complexity of procedure
    • Potential harm from failed attempt

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

examples of inherent risk categories
Examples of Inherent Risk Categories
  • Minimal Risk
    • Intramuscular injection; non-emergency clinical setting.
  • Moderate Risk
    • Placing a central line; patient with COPD.
  • High Risk
    • Intubation; emergency clinical setting.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

key determinants of incremental risk
Key Determinants of Incremental Risk
  • Incremental risk is the added risk of a student’s performing the procedure. Key determinants are the students’:
    • Knowledge base
    • Experience with patients
    • Performance of similar procedures

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

assessing risk
Assessing Risk
  • Categorizing inherent and incremental risk can help one reach a decision concerning student participation.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

slide16

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

risk category implications
Risk Category Implications
  • Category 0
    • Student should be allowed to perform the procedure without supervision.
  • Category 1
    • Student should be allowed to perform the procedure with a supervisor nearby.
  • Category 2
    • Student should be allowed to perform the procedure under close supervision.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

risk category implications1
Risk Category Implications
  • Category 3
    • Student should be allowed to perform the procedure under close supervision after the patient has given explicit informed consent.
  • Category 4
    • Student should not be allowed to perform the procedure on this specific patient.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

inherent and incremental risk to mr harvey
Inherent and Incremental Risk to Mr. Harvey
  • In Mr. Harvey’s case the inherent risk in placing a central line is moderate.
  • The incremental risk is moderate because of Miss Rogers’ level of experience and previously unsuccessful attempts.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

risk assessment implications
Risk Assessment Implications
  • In a case with moderate inherent risk and moderate incremental risk (Risk Category 2),
  • It is permissible for a medical student, like Miss Rogers, to perform the procedure under close supervision with the patient’s knowledge.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

2 informing the patient
2. Informing the Patient
  • Dr. Gage should:
    • . Inform Mr. Harvey of the inherent risks of the proposed procedure.
    • . Inform him that Miss Rogers, a medical student, is learning the procedure under her (Dr. Gage’s) supervision.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

information disclosed
Information Disclosed
  • Miss Rogers does not have to disclose information about her past attempts.
  • If Mr. Harvey asks about past attempts, his questions should be answered honestly.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

2 ensuring willingness
2. Ensuring Willingness
  • The AMA Code of Medical Ethics requires that the resident or attending physician ensure that the patient is “willing to permit [student] participation.”

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

informed consent
Informed Consent
  • If the clinical circumstances is determined to be Risk Category 3:
    • explicit informed consent must be obtained from the patient before the medical student performs the procedure.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

3 distribute the burden of medical education equitably
3. Distribute the Burden of Medical Education Equitably
  • Dr. Gage is sensitive to the potential for Medicaid patients and members of minority groups, like Mr. Harvey, to shoulder more of the burden of medical students’ learning.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

participation in medical student education
Participation in Medical Student Education
  • The burden of medical education is not shared equally among patients.
  • VIP -- and many other-- groups of patients are less likely to participate in medical student education.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

participation in medical student education1
Participation in Medical Student Education
  • All patients whose treatment calls for given procedures and,
  • Whose condition qualifies them,
  • Should be viewed as candidates for participating in the training of medical students.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

encouraging patient participation in medical student education
Encouraging Patient Participation in Medical Student Education
  • Patients in teaching hospitals receive the benefits of team care including the time and attention of medical students.
  • Without patient participation, the education and training of the next generation of physicians is undermined.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

take home lessons
Take Home Lessons
  • Physicians can balance patient care and medical student education by:
    • Assessing risk of student participation.
    • Supervising students accordingly based on risk assessment.
    • Educating patients about the benefits of student participation in medical care, and the their role in training the next generation of physicians.

Ethics Resource Center

American Medical Association

slide30

References

1. The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Medical students’ involvement in patient care. The Journal of Clinical Ethics. 12;2001:111-115.

2. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Accreditation Manual for Hospitals, 1985 Edition (Chicago: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital, 1984). Cited by: The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Medical students’ involvement in patient care. The Journal of Clinical Ethics. 12;2001:111-115.

3. Cohen DL et al. Informed consent policies governing medical students’ interactions with patients. Journal of Medical Education. 62;1987:789-798. Cited by: The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Medical students’ involvement in patient care. The Journal of Clinical Ethics. 12;2001:111-115.

4. Beatty ME, Lewis J. When students introduce themselves as doctors to patients. Academic Medicine. 72;1995:175-176. Cited by: The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Medical students’ involvement in patient care. The Journal of Clinical Ethics. 12;2001:111-115.

slide31

This ethics educational presentation

was created by the:

Ethics Resource CenterAmerican Medical Association515 North State StreetChicago, IL 60610Phone: (312) 464-5257Fax: (312) 464-4799Email: erc@ama-assn.org

Web: www.ama-assn.org/go/erc