LECTURE 9 SULFUR AND SULFURIC ACID. Ch 61 Industrial Chem. SULFUR - USES. a component of black gunpowder, vulcanization of natural rubber, used as a fungicide and insecticide , and used to make fertilizers. used to produce sulfuric acid for batteries
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Ch 61 Industrial Chem
Recovery of sulphur is done in three basic ways:
The Frasch method, developed by Herman Frasch of Canada, must be used to recover these deposits.
This process consists of circulating superheated hot water and steam through the well melting the sulphur.
Then, compressed air is forced into the well, pushing the liquid sulphur up to the surface.
This allows the recovery of the sulphur at the surface, where it is metered, cooled, and solidified.
Extraction of sulphur from natural gas is another source for sulphur.
The natural gas is sent to a processing plant where the hydrogen sulfide (sulphur) is extracted and where sweet (marketable) gas remains.
A method called the “Claus Process” is used to convert the sulphur compounds in sour gas to elemental sulphur. This process, invented by English scientist C. F. Claus, is now the most widely used method for extraction of sulphur from sour gas.
H2S(g) + 3/2O2(g) SO2(g) + H2O(g) ∆H = -518.8 kJ
SO2(g) + 2H2S(g) 3S(l) + H2O(g) ∆H = -142.8 kJ
plays some part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.
production of fertilizers, e.g., superphosphate of lime and ammonium sulfate.
manufacture of chemicals, e.g., in making hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfate salts, synthetic detergents, dyes and pigments, explosives, and drugs.
It is used in petroleum refining to wash impurities out of gasoline and other refinery products.
Sulfuric acid is used in processing metals, e.g., in pickling (cleaning) iron and steel before plating them with tin or zinc.
Rayon is made with sulfuric acid.
It serves as the electrolyte in the lead-acid storage battery commonly used in motor vehicles (acid for this use, containing about 33% H2SO4
The process can be divided into three stages:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3(g) : ΔH = −197 kJ mol−1
. . . or by heating sulphide ores like pyrite in an excess of air:
A flow scheme for this part of the process looks like this:
H2SO4(l) + SO3 (g) → H2S2O7(l)
H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) → 2 H2SO4(l)
Why not use an even higher proportion of oxygen? This is easy to see if you take an extreme case. Suppose you have a million molecules of oxygen to every molecule of sulphur dioxide.
By increasing the proportion of oxygen you can increase the percentage of the sulphur dioxide converted, but at the same time decrease the total amount of sulphur trioxide made each day. The 1 : 1 mixture turns out to give you the best possible overall yield of sulphur trioxide.
Ch 16 / 17 P and K industries
Ch 9 Ceramic Industries
Ch 22 Explosives, Propellants
Ch 23 Food and Food By-Products
Plant Trips, Plant Trips, Plant Trips
Ch 37/38 – Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals
Ch 29 Soap and Detergents
Ch 34 Plastic Industries
Ch 40 Pharmaceutical
Environmental Protection, R&D, Safety and Regulatory, Intellectual Property