Family Etmopteridae - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Family Etmopteridae

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  1. Family Etmopteridae Sara McCutcheon

  2. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: 5 genera Species: > 50 spp. Dogfish Sharks 2 Dorsal fins (w or w/o spines) No anal fin 5 Gill slits (all in front of pectoral fin origins) Nostrils not connected to mouth by grooves Spiracles behind and at level of eyes No nictitating lower eyelids Order Squaliformes

  3. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: 5 genera Species: > 50 spp. Lantern Sharks Luminous organs usually present Small sharks (10-107cm TL) Usually 2D > 1D Long, grooved dorsal spines Caudal fin w/ subterminal notch Continental and insular slopes Benthopelagic bathyal Tropical to temperate Reproduction when known is ovoviviparous w/ 3-20 pups Family Etmopteridae

  4. Genus Aculeola • Hooktooth dogfish • Small, hook-like teeth in both jaws • Very small, equal size dorsal spines • Long upper caudal lobe, lower lobe not • differentiated • Gill openings quite large • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Chondricthyes • Order: Squaliformes • Family: Etmopteridae • Genus: Aculeola • Species: nigra (1 sp)

  5. Aculeola nigra • Common, but restricted to SE Pacific

  6. Genus Centroscyllium • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Chondricthyes • Order: Squaliformes • Family: Etmopteridae • Genus: Centroscyllium • Species: 7 • Combtooth dogfish • Teeth w/ cusps and cusplets in both jaws • Short to moderately long snout • Strongly grooved dorsal spine • 2D > 1D Centroscyllium fabricii

  7. Centroscyllium spp. • 6 of 7 species are very small (<50cm TL) • Restricted to local and regional distributions • Species off Japan, N Indian Ocean, E Pacific, SW Atlantic • The largest C. fabricii (50-100cm) antitropical distribution in N and S Atlantic

  8. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: Etmopterus Species: 32 Lantern dogfish Often have photophores on underside Upper teeth with a cusp and 1 or more pairs of cusplets Lower teeth blade-like Smallest known shark species E. carteri and E. perryi reaches 10-20cm TL at maturity Genus Etmopterus

  9. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: Etmopterus Species: 32 Feed on macroplankton/micronekton, teleost fish, and cephalopods Dietary shift between juveniles and adults Juveniles feed on eurybathic crustaceans Adults feed on teleosts and cephalopods Age determination based on spine bands concluded: External spine bands: males 20yr, females 30yr Internal spine bands: males 10.5yr, females 11.5yr Long-lived and late maturing sharks Genus Etmopterus

  10. Etmopterus spp. • Very small to small sharks (<50cm TL) • All confined to bathyal habitats • World-wide but with local or regional distributions • Tropical and temperate waters • NW Atlantic has 6 endemic spp. • Fossils of Etmopterus found in deep-water Miocene deposits

  11. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: Miroscyllium Species: sheikoi (1 sp) Rasptooth dogfish Dark brown dorsally, black ventrally Black photomarks on caudal fin and caudal peduncle Long, flat snout Short mouth with comb-like teeth Teeth with cusps and cusplets in both jaws Genus Miroscyllium

  12. Miroscyllium sheikoi • Only known from Japan • 340-370m • Apparently rare and localized

  13. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Chondricthyes Order: Squaliformes Family: Etmopteridae Genus: Trigonognathus Species: kabeyai (1 sp) Viper dogfish “Triangle mouth” Terminal, snake-like mouth Huge, curved fang-like teeth Jaw highly protrusible Body dark brown dorsal, black ventral Black photomarks on caudal fin and peduncle Large, diagonally elongated spiracle Genus Trigonognathus

  14. Trigonognathus kabeyai • NW Pacific off Japan, Hawaii, and Emperor seamounts • Upper continental slopes, on bottom (330-360m)

  15. Any Questions?