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In The Name Of God. Water Resource& Policies. Country Report from Iran. S. Shirzad. Ministry of Energy Water Resources Management Company. Aug. 2007. Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues Major challenges and Trends in Iranian Water Resources Management

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water resource policies

In The Name Of God

Water Resource& Policies

Country Report from Iran

S. Shirzad

Ministry of Energy

Water Resources Management Company

Aug. 2007

contents
Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues

Major challenges and Trends in Iranian Water Resources Management

Recent Approaches and Water Policies

Conclusions

Contents
slide5

Iran Location

  • Area: 1.648 million km2
  • Population: 69 million
  • No of provinces: 30
  • Average Rainfall: 250 mm
  • Neighboring Countries:
  • Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia,
  • Turkey Saudi Arabia
  • Oman
  • Kuwait
  • Qatar
  • Bahrain
  • U.A.Emirates
slide6

• The country’s population increase:from 10 millions in 1920 to more than 69 millions in 2006 (about 7 times )• At presentIran is the 17th most populated countries in the world• by the end of 2050Iran will be classified as one of the 10 most populated regions in the world (based on the UN data ) • Therefore the need for water has been increased but still the quantity of water is not adequate.

Population Growth and Water Scarcity

slide7

Land, Irrigation and Agricultural

•Total land area of the country : 165 Mha

• Cultivable area : 37 Mha

• Actual cultivated area : 19 Mha

• Forests area: 12.4 Mha

• Pastures, mountains and deserts area: 89.2 Mha

• Irrigated erea: 8 Mha

• Rain-fed land erea: 6 Mha

• fallow land area: 4.5 Mha

• under surface irrigation: 7.6 Mha (95%)

• under the pressurized irrigation: 0.4 Mha (5%)

slide8

Climate and Precipitation

Iran’s climate varies from region to region:

•The winter temperatures in the mountainous areas of the north-west drop as low as -29˚C

• The Khuzestan Plain has extremely hot humid summer with an average temperature of about 35˚C

•Most of the interior plateau has a dry climate, but the winters are mild and pleasant.

•Iran has 8 climatic zones varying from very dry to very wet.

•The average annual precipitation is 250 mm and the range (varies from 50 mm to more than 1600 mm )

•Based on the average annual precipitation, Iran’s climate is classified among the semi-arid and arid.

slide9

Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues

Six major water basins and Rate of precipitation

in IRAN

Major catchment Basins location

slide12

Water Resources Potentials

According to studies carried out for formulation of the Iran Water Comprehensive Plan, the main characteristics of annual precipitation and its conversion to water resources are shown:

Annual Water Resources in Billion Cubic Meters

Return Water from Consumption 29 BCM

Total159 BCM

elements of water management
Policy Makers

Parliament

Supreme Water Council, presided by the President of Iran

Governance (Ministry of Energy)

Deputy Minister for Water Affairs (Iran Water Resources Management Company)

Regional Water Companies

Deputy Minister for Water & Wastewater Affairs (Water & Wastewater Engineering Company)

Provincial Water & Wastewater companies

Other Stakeholders

Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture

Ministry of Industry

Mines, Ministry of Urban Development

Environmental Protection Organization, …

Private Sector

126 Consultant firms

216 Contractors

Elements of Water Management
slide16

Infrastructure

  • Storage and Diversion Dams
  • Irrigation and Drainage Networks
  • Urban Water, Wastewater and Sanitation
  • Hydropower
slide17
DAMS

Under Construction

Under Operation

irrigation drainage networks
Irrigation & Drainage Networks

Under Operation

  • Number of IDN: 66
  • Area under command (ha): 1560000

UnderConstruction

  • Number of IDN: 49
  • Area under command (ha): 500,000
availability of potable water for urban and rural population

Title

1979

2005

Urban Population Access to Potable Water (Percent)

62.3

97.8

Rural Population Access to Potable Water (Percent)

Less than 24

85

Availability of Potable Water for Urban and Rural Population

urban water and sanitation
Total Urban Habitat (million) 40.6

Population Covered by Urban Water Services (million) 39

No. of Cities under Service 650

Percent of Population under Service(%) 97.8

Supplied Water (MCM) 6845

Total Length of Water Distribution Network (km) 80000

No. of Subscribers 7,800,000

No. of Water Treatment Plants 90

Urban Water and Sanitation
hydropower
Installed Capacity 6262 MW

Under construction 7000 MW

Potential Capacity 26000 MW

Hydropower
2 major challenges and trends in iranian water resources management
Unbalance sequence between demand and supply of water resources

Excessive withdrawal of groundwater resources

Demand Management in accordance to priorities set in the National Water Plan

Assessment of total value and cost of water relevant to each basin

Pollution of water resources and its economic and environmental consequences

Efficiency in water irrigation systems

Risk Management of water related natural disaster ( i. e. drought and flood)

Implementation of National Integrated Water Resources Management

Efficient and equitable water price for various uses

Land use planning

Unaccounted for water (UFW)

2. Major challenges and Trends in Iranian Water Resources Management
water consumption vision

90 million

population

Water Demand

Water Consumption Vision

Consumption Increase due to urbanization and improved welfare

We need 30 bcm more

how we can prepare more fresh water in future
How We Can Prepare More Fresh Water in Future
  • Improvement Water efficiency
  • Increasing the Storage Capacity
  • Modern Water Harvest Methods
  • Water & Wastewater Recycle
  • Salty Water Desalination
3 recent approaches and water policies
Promotion of Private Investment in Water Projects

Long-Term Development Strategies for Iran’s Water Resources

Creation of Water Related Councils

Strengthening Scientific and Practical Skills and Potentials

Promotion of sustainable development and environmental views in water resources management

The 4th Development Program of the Country-Water Sector

3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

In order to solve the challenges Iran has developed some important and strategic plans which are as follow:

3 recent approaches and water policies30
Due to increasing water scarcity in the country policy makers have been forced to proceed in more open minded strategies and to share the stakeholders to participate in water resources development projects. In this regard, the Law of Promotion of Investment in Water Projects was approved in 2002 and is now effective. 3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

3. 1. Promotion of Private Investment in Water Projects

slide31

3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

3. 2. Long-Term Development Strategies for Iran’s Water Resources

With respect to the great social and economical development role that water resources have in the country, a code of conduct which have illustrated the future water strategies, have been prepared. According to the challenges, it has been planned to increase irrigation network efficiency in such way to decrease agricultural share of water from 92 percent to less than 87 percent within the next 20 years. Since water pollution is now considered as one of the major issues of concern in recent decades, it has been planned that strict control of wastewater discharge to the environment is going to be respected in all aspects. Promotion of public awareness activities in order to increase people’s share in conservation of water resources is also planned to be part of the future goals of water resources strategies in the country.

slide32

3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

3. 3. Strengthening Scientific and Practical Skills and Potentials

In order to strengthen regional cooperation, the Regional Center on Urban Water Management (RCUWM-Tehran) was established in 200 1 with collaboration of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Duties of the RCUWM-Tehran are to promote the transfer of technical knowledge and experience and to promote awareness and capacities in all aspects of urban water management .

slide33

3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

3. 4. Creation of Water Related Councils

Due to the relevant increasing demand potential over water resources and the importance of this valuable source, the Supreme Council of Water, which is headed by the president, is responsible to coordinate the future strategies of Iran’s water resources. Furthermore various organizations and NGOs are also active in different parts of the country to cooperate with governmental body in order to better implement the conducted strategies.

slide34

3. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

3. 5. Promotion of sustainable development and environmental views in water resources management

On the basis of sustainable development approaches. economic development will be desirable. only when it is not followed by environmental damages and exhaustion of natural resources which the coming generations will need.

Ministry of Energy (Water Resources Management Company) has always tried its best to pay attentions to environmental issues sustainable development. Therefore offices related to environmental affairs and sustainable development has been established in headquarter and provisional water authorities in order to guarantee that all its activities would follow environmental friendly concept .

slide35

In addition to executing development plans & supplying water through dams construction, considerations of IWRM, EIA and sustainable development should be taken into attention.

How to Reach?

The long-term development strategiesare on the basis of IWRM deserve to respond:

• Economic efficiency • Water for food and social security • Water for environment and sustainable development

the 4th development program of the country water sector 2004 2009
The 4th Development Program of the Country-Water Sector (2004-2009)

The Fourth Development Program consists of a Water sector in which 6 qualitative and 19 quantitative goals are considered. of the main qualitative goals the tailoring could be mentioned:

- Integration and reconstruction of the management institutions - Development and exploitation of water resources in the framework of sustainable development- Mobilizing more financial resources to increase investment rate on water projects- Strengthening public contributions- Enhancing water economy efficiency

the 4th development program of the country water sector 2004 200937

ITEM

Average Annual Growth (%)

Dams Regulated Capacity

Small Water Supply Plans

Main Irrigation Networks

River and Coast Training

Artificial Recharge

Quantitative and Qualitative Water Resources Studies

Qualitative Water Resources Monitoring

Applied Researches

Groundwater Exploitation

Domestic Water-Urban and Rural

Domestic Wastewater

6.5

7.41

0.58

16.5

7.4

66.6

49.6

15.1

0.94

6

16.9

The 4th Development Program of the Country-Water Sector (2004-2009)