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PLANT BREEDING AGR 3204. Plant Reproduction System. Plant Reproduction System. The reproduction mechanism of a particular plant species or the way it reproduces determines its genetic characteristics the breeding approach. 1. Sexual Reproduction.

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plant breeding agr 3204


Plant Reproduction System

plant reproduction system
Plant Reproduction System
  • The reproduction mechanism of a particular plant species or the way it reproduces determines
    • its genetic characteristics
    • the breeding approach.
1 sexual reproduction
1. Sexual Reproduction
  • Using sex organs to form next generation / to produce seeds.

1. Sexual reproduction (cont.)

Important steps:

  • Production of gametes (gametogenesis)
  • Pollination – Transfer of pollen from anther (male organ) to the stigma (female organ).
  • Fertilization – The union of male and female gametes to produce new genotypes.
  • Transfer of pollen from anther (male organ) to the stigma (female organ).
  • Two kinds of pollination,
    • Self pollination
    • Cross pollination
self pollination
Self Pollination
  • Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of the same flower / plant
self pollination1
Self pollination
  • Natural mechanisms that encourages self pollination:
  • Cleistogamy
  • Pollination happens when flower is still closed.

Example: Rice

self pollination cont
Self Pollination (cont.)
  • Stigma protected by anther
  • Anthesis and pollination occur instantaneously once the flower blooms.
  • Many pollen are produced, covering the stigma, hence preventing pollination by pollen from outside.

Example: lime, tomato and chilli

Chilli flower

self pollination cont1
Self pollination (cont.)

3. Stigma and anther protected by other parts of flower.

  • Male (stamen) and female (pistil) organs covered by keel, i.e. two fused petals.
  • Example: Leguminosae family, sub-family Papilionoideae.
cross pollination
Cross Pollination
  • Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of flower of different plant.
cross pollination cont
Cross Pollination(cont.)
  • Natural mechanisms to promote cross pollination:
  • Dieocious
    • Male and female flowers are formed on different plants.
    • Have male and female plants.
      • Example: Papaya, salak

Male salak flower

Female salak flower

cross pollination cont1
Cross Pollination(cont.)

2. Monoecious

  • Male and female flowers are in separate positions on the same plant but mature at slightly different times.
    • Example: Oil palm, corn and rubber.
cross pollination cont2
Cross Pollination(cont.)

3. Dichogamy

Anther and stigma from hemaphrodite flower or flower of monoecious plant mature at different times.

  • Protogyne

Stigma (female flower) matures before anther (male flower).

Example: Potato, cassava and cashew.

Protogyne: Potato flower

cross pollination cont3
Cross Pollination(cont.)

3. Dichogamy (cont.)

  • Protandry

Anther (male flower) matures before stigma (female flower).

Example: Starfruit and rubber.

Protandry: Starfruitflower

cross pollination cont4
Cross Pollination(cont.)

4. Self-incompatibility

Pollens are unable to fertilize ovule (female gamete) of the same flower/plant due to genetic factor (self incompatibility gene)

Example: Potato, passion fruit and starfruit.

cross pollination cont5
Cross pollination(cont.)
  • In some species, there are more than one mechanism to promote cross pollination:
  • Rubber and corn: monoecious and protandry.
  • Potato, Sweet potato: Self-incompatibility and protogyne
  • Starfruit & passion fruit: Self-incompatibility and protandry
methods to determine modes of pollination
Methods to determine modes of pollination

1. Identify flower formation system.

2. Isolate plants.

No fruit/seed  cross pollinated

Fruit set/seed set  self pollinated and possibly cross pollinated

3. Selfing.

To observe the effects of inbreeding.

Present  cross pollinated.

Absent / minimal  self pollinated.

2 asexual reproduction
2. Asexual Reproduction
  • Does not involve sex or union of male and female gametes.


  • Vegetative reproduction
  • Apomixis
vegetative reproduction
Vegetative Reproduction
  • Stem/branch/root cuttings  e.g. cassava
  • Grafting  e.g. rubber, rambutan & durian
  • Rhizome  e.g. tumeric & ginger
  • Stolon e.g. grass
  • Tuber  e.g. potato & sweet potato
  • Tiller  e.g. pineapple , sugarcane & banana
  • Formation of seeds without union of gametes, i.e. fertilization.
apomixis cont
Apomixis (cont.)
  • Apogamy – Embryo formation from synergids or antipodals
apomixis cont1
Apomixis (cont.)
  • AposporyEmbryo develops from somatic cell such as nucellus and integument.
  • DiplosporyEmbryo develops from megasporocyte.
  • Adventitious embryo Embryo develops directly from nucellus and integument cells without involving embryo sac cells.
  • Parthenogenesis Embryo develops from unfertilized eggs.
apomixis cont2
Apomixis (cont.)
  • Obligate apomixis
    • Apomixis reproduction is the main method of reproduction.
    • Example: mangosteen

Facultative apomixis

    • Both apomixis and sexual reproduction occur.
    • Example: Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Citrus sp.