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THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM . D. C. Mikulecky Faculty Mentoring Program Virginia Commonwealth University. ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. TESTIS SCROTUM PENIS SEMINAL VESSICLES, PROSTATE GLAND, BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS EPIDIDYMUS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA. TESTES.

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the reproductive system

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

D. C. Mikulecky

Faculty Mentoring Program

Virginia Commonwealth University

anatomy of the male reproductive system
ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • TESTIS
  • SCROTUM
  • PENIS
  • SEMINAL VESSICLES, PROSTATE GLAND, BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
  • EPIDIDYMUS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA
testes
TESTES
  • PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OR GONADS
  • PRODUCTION OF SPERM
  • SUSPENDED OUTSIDE THE BODY CAVITY BY SCROTUM
penis
PENIS
  • DEPOSITS SPERM IN FEMALE
  • ERECTILE TISSSUE (VASCULAR)
  • ERECTION RESULTS FROM GORGING TISSUE WITH BLOOD
  • ERECTION IS A PARASYMPATHETIC SPINAL REFLEX TO TACTILE AND OTHER STIMULATION ENHANCED BY SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION
seminal vessicles prostate gland bulbourethral glands
SEMINAL VESSICLES, PROSTATE GLAND, BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
  • PROVIDE THE BULK OF THE SEMEN, A MIXTURE OF SECRETIONS, SPERM AND MUCOUS
  • FRUCTOSE AND PROSTAGLANDINS FROM SEMINAL VESSICLES
  • ALKALINITY AND CLOTTING ENZYMES FROM PROSTATE
  • LUBRICANT FOR INTERCOURSE FROM BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
epididymus vas deferens urethra ejaculation
EPIDIDYMUS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA: EJACULATION
  • ROUTE OF EXIT OF SPERM
  • DUCTUS DEFERNS STORES SPERM
  • DURING EMMISSION PHASE OF EJACULATION SPERM ARE EMPTIED INTO URETHRA BY SYMPATHETICALLY INDUCED CONTRACTIONS
  • MOTOR NEURON INDUCED CONTRACTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AT BASE OF PENIS EXPELL THE SEMEN DURING EXPULSION PHASE OF EJACULATION
  • EJACULATION IS A PART OF ORGASM
anatomy of the female reproductive system
ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • VAGINA
  • UTERUS
  • CERVIX
  • CLITORIS
  • LABIA
  • OVARIES
  • OVIDUCTS
vagina
VAGINA
  • ENTRANCE TO UTERUS
  • PLACE WHERE PENIS INSERTS TO DEPOSIT SPERM
  • MUSCULAR, EXPANSIBLE TUBE
uterus
UTERUS
  • MAINTAINS FETUS DURING PREGNANCY
  • MUSCULATURE CONTRACTS TO EXPEL FETUS AT BIRTH
cervix
CERVIX
  • LOWEST PORTION OF THE UTERUS
  • PROJECTS INTO VAGINA
  • CERVICAL CANAL SERVES AS PATHWAY FOR SPERM DURING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
  • PASSAGWAY FOR DELIVERY OF BABY FROM UTERUS
clitoris
CLITORIS
  • ERECTILE TISSUE ANALOGOUS TO PENIS IN MALE
  • SENSITIVE AND EROTIC
  • AT FOLD OF LABIA MINORA
labia
LABIA
  • SKIN FOLDS
  • MAJORA- OUTER
  • MINORA-INNER
  • AROUND VAGINAL AND URETHRAL OPENINGS
ovaries
OVARIES
  • FEMALE GONADS
  • IN ABDOMEN
  • PRODUCE OVA
  • SECRETE ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE
oviducts
OVIDUCTS
  • LINK OVARIES TO UTERUS
  • FALOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBES
  • PICK UP OVA AT OVULATION
  • SITE FOR FERTILIZATION
sexual intercourse
SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
  • COITUS OR COPULATION
  • AT SOME POINT PENIS IS INSERTED INTO VAGINA
  • SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE
the four phases of sexual cycle
THE FOUR PHASES OF SEXUAL CYCLE
  • EXCITEMENT
  • PLATEAU
  • ORGASM
  • RESOLUTION
excitement
EXCITEMENT
  • CAN BE INITIATED PHYSICALLY (TACTILE STIMULI)AND/OR PSYCHOLOGICALLY
  • CLITORIS, SURROUNDING PERINEAL AREA AND PENIS ARE PRIMARY AREAS FOR THIS
  • OTHER SENSITIVE AREAS MAY CONTRIBUTE IF STIMULATED, BREASTS, TESTICLES, ETC.
  • ERECTION OF PENIS AND CLITORIS RESULT (CLITORIS IS A HOMOLOGUE OF THE PENIS)
  • LUBRICATION FROM VAGINAL CAPILLARIES, GLANDS AT OPENING OF VAGINA AND PENIS PREPARE FOR INTERCOURSE
plateau
PLATEAU
  • INTENSIFICATION OF CHANGES DURING EXCITEMENT PHASE
  • HEART RATE AND BREATHING CHANGES
  • MUSCLE TENSION INCREASES
  • VAGINA TIGHTENS AROUND PENIS HEIGHTENING SENSATION
  • UTERUS RAISES UPWARD CREATING SPACE FOR EJACULATE
male orgasm
MALE ORGASM
  • RHYTHMIC CONTRACTIONS DURING SEMEN EXPULSION
  • INVOLUNTARY RHYTHMIC THROBBING OF PELVIC MUSCLES
  • BREATHING AND HEART RATE INCREASED
  • EMOTIONAL RESPONSE: RELEASE AND COMPLETE GRATIFICATION
  • RESOLUTION PHASE INVOLVES SYMPATHETIC VASOCONSTRICTION
  • A REFRACTORY PERIOD PREVENTS MULTIPLE ORGASMS IN THE MALE
epididymus vas deferens urethra ejaculation20
EPIDIDYMUS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA: EJACULATION
  • ROUTE OF EXIT OF SPERM
  • DUCTUS DEFERNS STORES SPERM
  • DURING EMMISSION PHASE OF EJACULATION SPERM ARE EMPTIED INTO URETHRA BY SYMPATHETICALLY INDUCED CONTRACTIONS
  • MOTOR NEURON INDUCED CONTRACTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AT BASE OF PENIS EXPELL THE SEMEN DURING EXPULSION PHASE OF EJACULATION
  • EJACULATION IS A PART OF ORGASM
female orgasm
FEMALE ORGASM
  • PARALLELS THAT IN MALES WITH TWO EXCEPTIONS
  • NO COUNTERPART TO EJACULATION
  • NO REFRACTORY PERIOD-MULTIPLE ORGASMS POSSIBLE
sex determination and differentiation
SEX DETERMINATION AND DIFFERENTIATION
  • SEX CHROMOSOMES X AND Y
  • 22 PAIRS AUTOSOMAL
  • 1 PAIR DETERMINES SEX: XX OR XY
  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND EXTERNAL GENETALIA DEVELOP REGARDLESS
  • TESTOSTERONE PRODUCES MALE CHARACTERISTICS
  • EVIDENT AFTER 10 TO 12 WEEKS
male reproductive physiology
MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
  • DEPENDS ON TESTOSTERONE
  • TESTICULAR LEYDIG CELLS SECRETE TESTOSTERONE
  • TESTES DESCEND AND PASS OUT OF ABDOMINAL CAVITY
testosterone before birth
TESTOSTERONE: BEFORE BIRTH
  • BEFORE BIRTH:MASCULINIZES REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND EXTERNAL GENETALIA
  • DESCENT OF TESTES
  • CEASES AT BIRTH
  • RETURNS AT PUBERTY
puberty in the male
PUBERTY IN THE MALE
  • USUALLY 10-14 YEARS OLD
  • ENDOCRINE,PHYSICAL, AND BEHAVIORAL
  • LEYDIG CELLS “AWAKE”
testosterone at puberty
TESTOSTERONE: AT PUBERTY
  • SPERMATOGENESIS
  • ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS ENLARGE AND BECOME SECRETORY
  • PENIS AND SCROTUM ENLARGE
  • LIBIDO
effects of testosterone on secondary sex characteristics
EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE ON SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS
  • HAIR GROWTH PATTERN
  • DEEP VOICE
  • THICK SKIN
  • MALE BODY CONFIGURATION
other effects of testosterone
OTHER EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE
  • BONE GROWTH
  • PROTEIN ANABOLIC EFFECT
  • EVENTUALLY STOPS BONE GROWTH
  • AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR(IN ANIMALS)
  • MALE MENOPAUSE
control of testicular function
CONTROL OF TESTICULAR FUNCTION

HYPOTHALAMUS

GRH +

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

FSH

LH

TESTES

SERTOLI

CELL

LEYDIG

CELL

SPERMATOGENESIS

TESTOSTERONE

INHIBIN

female reproductive physiology
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
  • CYCLIC
  • OOGENESIS
  • FERTILIZATION
  • PREGNANCY
  • DELIVERY
  • MENOPAUSE
the ovarian cycle
THE OVARIAN CYCLE
  • FOLLICULAR PHASE
  • LEUTEAL PHASE
  • ONLY INTERRUPTED BY PREGNANCY
  • ENDS AT MENOPAUSE
follicular phase
FOLLICULAR PHASE
  • PRIMARY OOCYTE IS IN A PREPARATORY PHASE
  • FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION
  • OVULATION
  • ESTROGEN SECRETED FROM FOLLICLE
leuteal phase
LEUTEAL PHASE
  • AFTER OVULATION
  • DEVELOPMENT OF CORPUS LUTEUM
  • SECRETES PROGESTERONE AND ESTROGEN
  • DEGENERATES AFTER 2 WEEKS IF NOT FERTILIZED
if not fertilized
IF NOT FERTILIZED
  • CORPUS LEUTEUM DEGENERATES
  • ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LEVELS FALL
  • MENSTRUAL PHASE INVOLVES SLOUGHING OF PREPARED ENDOMETRIUM
  • NEW CYCLE STARTS-NEW FOLLICLES DEVELOP AND BEGIN SECRETING ESTROGEN
control of fsh and lh secretion during follicular phase
CONTROL OF FSH AND LH SECRETION DURING FOLLICULAR PHASE

HYPOTHALAMUS

GRH +

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

FSH

LH

OVARY

LOW LEVELS OF ESTROGEN

INHIBIN

control of lh surge at ovulation
CONTROL OF LH SURGE AT OVULATION

HYPOTHALAMUS

GNRH +

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

FSH

LH

OVARY

MATURE FOLLICLE

HIGH LEVELS OF ESTROGEN

OVULATION

feedback control during luteal phase
FEEDBACK CONTROL DURING LUTEAL PHASE

HYPOTHALAMUS

GNRH +

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

LH

OVARY

CORPUS LUTEUM

HIGH LEVELS OF

PROGESTERONE

MODERATE

LEVELS OF ESTROGEN

fertilization
FERTILIZATION
  • IN OVIDUCT
  • SPERM DEPOSITED IN VAGINA AT EJACULATION
  • TRAVEL TO OVIDUCT TAKES A LITTLE OVER 1/2 HOUR
  • CERVICAL CANAL IS OPEN DUE TO ESTROGEN BEING HIGH AND REMAINS OPEN TWO TO THREE DAYS
  • SPERM ENTER UTERUS AND ARE CHURNED AROUND
  • WHEN REACH OVIDUCT, SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS PROPELL THEM ONWARD
  • MATURE EGG RELEASES A CHEMOTACTIC AGENT
  • OUT OF SEVERAL HUNDRED MILLION ONLY A FEW THOUSAND MAKE IT
  • TAIL OF SPERM MANEUVERS IT FOR FINAL PENETRATION
hormones of pregnancy
HORMONES OF PREGNANCY
  • PLACENTA IS ORGAN OF EXCHANGE
  • PLACENTA SECRETES HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG)-PROLONGS LIFE OF CORPUS LUTEUM
  • ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LEVELS EVEN HIGHER NOW
  • AFTER 10 WEEKS PLACENTA TAKES OVER
parturition
PARTURITION
  • POSITIVE FEEDBACK
  • CERVICAL DILATION
  • DELIVERY
  • DELIVERY OF PLACENTA
lactation
LACTATION
  • MAMMARY GLANDS OR BREASTS
  • MILK PRODUCING GLANDS AND FAT
  • ACTION OF ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE IS TO PREPARE GLANDS DURING PREGNANCY
  • ALSO BLOCK PROLACTIN’S STIMULATION
  • OXYTOCIN-MILK EJECTION
  • SUCKLING TRIGGERS OXYTOCIN RELEASE