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Arifa Lodhi and Badar Ghauri PowerPoint Presentation
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Arifa Lodhi and Badar Ghauri

Arifa Lodhi and Badar Ghauri

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Arifa Lodhi and Badar Ghauri

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  1. AEROSOL ANALYSIS AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN URBAN AREA, LAHORE PAKISTAN Arifa Lodhi and Badar Ghauri Pakistan Space And Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPPARCO), P. O. Box 8402, University Road, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

  2. Presentation Overview • Air Quality Monitoring • Results of four winter studies (1999, 2000, 2001, 2005) • Source Apportionment-Application of SO42-/Se Tracer technique, Statistics analysis, Factor analysis • Local and distant source identification • Future plans

  3. Sampling LocationAerosol Samples were collected at Lahore, which is the capital of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan with a population of 7 million. • Sampling Details • Aerosol Sampling (PM2.5) was carried out during last few winters on following Dates: • January 1-5 1999 • December 25-31, 1999 and January 1-8, 2000 • January 9-11 2001 sampling intervalwas 5 min. • Nov. 21 2005 to Dec. 9, 2005 • During winter, northeastern Pakistan is under the influence of a high-pressure system resulting in dry weather and low wind speeds. These conditions are ideal for accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Bhati Gate Wagha Lhr. Cantt SUPARCO OFFICE Township

  4. METHODOLOGY • The samples were collected on 47-mm Zelfluor (Teflon) filters using Millipore Swinex holder trains. • Thermo Electron Corporation RAAS PM2.5 Aerosol Sampler • (iii) Black Carbon/Elemental Carbon and Organic Carbon Magee Scientific Model AE21 Aethalometer • Analysis Carried out for following parameters (Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health) • Anions & Cations (Ion Chromatograph) • Trace and Toxic metal (ICP-MS)

  5. STUDY 1 January 1-5 1999 • Mean Concentration and Range of Trace Species Concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, are in µg/m3, other in ng/m3.

  6. Mean Concentration and Range of Trace Species STUDY 2 25 December 1999 to 8th January 2000 the two sampling time intervals of 6 hour periods from 0800 to 1400 and 1400 to 2000 hours followed by a 12 hour over night period from 2000 to 0800 hours. a Concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, and SO2 are in µg/m3, other in ng/m3.

  7. Summary of 5-min aerosol measurements at Lahore, Pakistan, during January 2001

  8. Date (2005) Min.BC Max. BC Avg. BC Nov 21 1.6 46.1 14.3 Nov 22 6 54.4 18.2 Nov 23 3.7 52.8 15.8 Nov 24 4.4 38.3 16.5 Nov 25 3.2 55.2 12.1 Nov 26 4.7 58.8 21.2 Concentration (µg/m3) of black carbon at Lahore

  9. Nov 27 11.4 45 21.4 Nov 28 4.8 52.4 14.3 Nov 29 1.5 40.4 10.8 Nov 30 1.7 34.7 12 Dec 01 2.1 57.9 20.9 Dec 02 3.1 68.7 26.3 Dec 03 2.2 56.7 21.4 Dec 04 3.3 51.4 19.5 Dec 05 3.1 57.6 15.9 Dec 06 2.1 76.3 20.7 Concentration (µg/m3) of black carbon at Lahore

  10. STUDY 4 Nov. 21 2005 to Dec. 9, 2005 Time series showing filter mass and BC Concentrations in Lahore, Pakistan

  11. Concentrations (ug/m3) of Black Carbon/Elemental Carbon in Metropolitan Areas

  12. Application of Tracer technique • SOURCE EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES STUDY 1 January 1-5 1999 • STUDY 2 • 25 December 1999 to 8th January 2000 Concentrations in ug/m3 of SO42- , NO3- , Se, As, and Sb in 12 hour samples at Lahore, Pakistan.

  13. STUDY 3 • January 9-11 2001 In January 2001 the sampling interval was 5 min. Five-min aerosol concentrations of (a) SO4-2 (nmoles/m3) and (b) Se (pmoles/m3) at Lahore, Pakistan on January 9, 2001. The inverted solid triangles in (b) represents the detection limit for Se is approx. 20(pmoles/m3). The SO4-2 /Se ratios are shown in (c).(L. Husain et al 2004)

  14. Application of Tracer technique • Sulfate was good correlated with Se and not with any element indicating their common source, most likely coal combustion • The SO4/Se ratios vary from ~1800 to 10,000 with a mean of 4070 are in the range typically observed at sites in the US and indicative of substantial contributions to sulfate concentration due to the oxidation of SO2. • The sulphate/Se ratio were suggestive of longe-range transport from several hundred kms

  15. Statistics analysis STUDY 1 January 1-5 1999 Rotated Factor Analysis of Aerosol Data Factor loadings less than 0.4 have been omitted.

  16. Rotated Factor Analysis of Aerosol Data STUDY 2 25 December 1999 to 8th January 2000 Factor loadings less than 0.4 have been omitted

  17. STUDY 2 • 25 December 1999 to 8th January 2000 Crustal Enrichment Factors of Trace Elements aEnrichment factor =(Xair/Alair)(Xcrust/Alcrust)

  18. Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX):

  19. Conclusion and Future plans • The high levels of pollutants especially aerosol sulfate concentration were observed may be due to local sources and extensive coal utilization of coal in Indian power plants. • The high level of BC may be due local activities such as frequent garbage burning, diesel combustion, sugar mill and bick kilin activities around the city. • A detailed scientific investigation of aerosol chemistry has been initiated at multiple sites in Lahore • The control measures are required to be placed because of potential threat to the inhabitants of the region where millions of people live.

  20. THANK YOU