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理工英语

理工英语

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理工英语

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  1. 理工英语

  2. 2 3 4 1 ; Module 7 English for Printing In this module, you will learn how to: summarize main development of printing . distinguish different color printers. gather someinformation about careers in the graphic arts. write an invitation for bids .

  3. Passage A Passage B Extra Reading Section One Practical Reading

  4. Section One Practical Reading Warm-up: Look at the pictures and answer the questions below.

  5. Section One Practical Reading • Q1. Do you know the development of printing in these pictures? • Q2. Are you familiar with Bi Sheng and Wang Xuan? • Q3. How much information do you know about laser typesetting equipment?

  6. Section One Passage A How printing developed? • Our ancestors develop a variety of techniques for reproducing many copies of a graphic message. Printing is the term that describes these techniques. • In its earlier form, printing was done from hand-carved wooden blocks. The complete message was cut in reverse into the block. Then the block was inked and pressed against the material to the printed. This is called relief printing. • A major limitation of wood block printing is that each new massage requires carving a new block of wood, and carving is a slow and tedious process. This limitation was overcome with the invention of movable type.

  7. Section One Passage A • Movable type consists of individual letters of the alphabet that can be assembled to produce a printed message, disassembled and then assembled again to form a new message. Movable type characters made from hardened clay were used in china as early as 1041A.D. by the middle of the thirteenth century; Koreans were casting type in bronze. • In 1439 Johann Gutenberg became the first European to print from movable type. It is not known whether he invented the process on his own or if he was aware of the developments that had occurred in the Orient. Not only did Gutenberg print from movable type, but, even more important, he developed a practical means of casting type. The famous Gutenberg Bible is one of the earliest books printed from movable type in the west.

  8. Section One Passage A • Early printing was done on hand-operated wooden presses. The printing of 250 sheets of paper in Gutenberg’s time was considered a full day’s work. By the middle of the seventeenth century, 2000 sheets a day should be printed. Today high-speed presses can print many thousands of sheets in a single hour. • The first printing press in American was set up in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639. Steven Daye, the first American printer, operated this press. His first book, The Whole Book of Psalmes was printed in 1640. Typesetting, printing, and binding of the 1700 copies of this 300-page book took almost a full year to complete.

  9. Section One Passage A • The most famous American printer was Benjamin Franklin. Franklin established his own printing business in Philadelphia in 1728. His most notable publications included the Pennsylvania Gazeete, a leading colonial newspaper, and poor Richard’s Almanack, issued 1732. • Developments in the last 100 years have revolutionized the printing industry. Printing has changed from art to a science, from a craft to a technology. But the development of printing is not over yet. New materials, machines, and methods are constantly being invented to satisfy man’s need to communicate.

  10. Listening &Repeating • ancestor n. 祖宗;(机器的)原型 • technique n. 工艺,技巧;技术 • carve v. 雕刻;刻 • wooden adj.木制的;木头的 • reverse v. 使反转;彻底改变 • ink v. 给…上油墨(以供印刷) • tedious adj. 冗长的,令人厌烦的 • movable adj.可移动的;活动的 • type n.类型;字体;(印刷用的)活字 • assemble v. 聚集;组装 • character n.特点;角色;文字 • clay n.粘土;陶土 • bronze n.青铜;青铜色 • European n.欧洲人 • Orient n. 东方

  11. Listening &Repeating • clay n.粘土;陶土 • bronze n.青铜;青铜色 • European n.欧洲人 • Orient n. 东方cast v.铸造;投掷 • press v./ n.压,按;报道,报刊;印刷机 • sheet n. 一张纸;床单;薄板(多指正方形或长方形的) • typeset v.排版 • bind v. 装订;捆绑;粘合 • notable adj.著名的;值得注意的 • colonial adj.殖民地的;殖民地化的 • issue v. 公布,出版,发行

  12. Listening &Repeating • revolutionize v.彻底改变;完全变革 • craft n. 手艺;工艺;技能 ………………………………………………… • relief printing 凸版印 • movable type 活字 • consist of 由…组成;包括 • on one’s own 独自地;独立地 • set up 建立;开办;安排

  13. Notes • 1. A major limitation of wood block printing is that each new massage requires carving a new block of wood. 木刻版印刷有一重要缺陷,即每一新的图文信息需要雕刻一块新的木版。句中that引导表语从句,解释a major limitation of wood block printing. • 2. Movable type characters made from hardened clay were used in china as early as 1041A.D. by the middle of the thirteenth century. 中国早在公元1041年就使用了由硬泥土做成的活字。 句中made from hardened clay是过去分词做定语修饰movable type characters, 谓语是were used.

  14. Notes • 3. It is not known whether he invented the process on his own or if he was aware of the developments that had occurred in the Orient. 人们尚不清楚是他自己独立发明了这一工艺,还是他了解到了有关这一工艺在东方世界的发展情况。 此句是个it做形式主语的复合句,真正主语是whether he invented the process on his own or if he was aware of the developments that had occurred in the orient, 后面that 引导的是定语从句,先行词是developments. • 4. Not only did Gutenberg print from movable type, but, even more important, he developed a practical means of casting type. 谷登堡不仅用活字来印刷,然而更重要的是他发展了铸造活字的实用方法。 这里not only…but also 连接两个并列的句子,not only引导句子时要倒装。

  15. Section One Passage B Color Printers • Just as there are various types of motor vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcyles, and so on) there are different color print technologies, each well suited for certain purposes. • The different types of desktop color printers are dye sublimation, wax thermal, phase change, inkjet, impact and electrostatic. If you need true photographic, high quality prints, you will want a dye sublimation printer. Dye subs are unique among desktop printers 1 the actual colors are 2 just as an artist mixes colors on a palette. in that blended

  16. Section One Passage B difference • The important 3 between a dye sub and all other kinds of desktop color printers is the ability to create continuous tones. All other printers use a process called dithering, which places hundreds of thousands of tiny cyan, magenta, yellow, and black dots in such a way that the eye is “ 4 ” into seeing continuous tones. Put it under a magnifier, however, and the four colored dots become immediately apparent. • There are, however, several potential 5 to dye sub prints of which users should be aware. One is their relatively small size. Typically, the largest image most desktop dye sub printers can produce is 8 by 10-inches. tricked drawbacks

  17. Section One Passage B • The final negative is price. Dye sub printers are the expensive desktop color media. Most full-sized dye sub printers usually cost between $ 10,000 and $ 25,000. Depending upon the make and size, each dye sub print can cost up to $ 7 in paper and pigment (known as consumables). Also, to make full-sized prints, most dye sub printers must be equipped with lots of RAMs. • Wax thermal printers are first cousins to dye sub printers in that they heat and emboss an image from rolls of cellophane ribbons coated with three or four color wax pigments. The difference is that they generate dithered rather than continuous tones, which means that both the image and the colors will 6 tiny dot. be made up of

  18. Section One Passage B • While they can not produce photographic quality prints, wax thermals create vivid, well-saturated images suitable for illustrations, drawings, audio-visual presentations, charts, graphics, and proofs. • A phase change printer is similar with a wax printer; both use wax-based pigments. Instead of cellophane rows of pigment, phase change printers use color wax sticks, which are then melted and sprayed on like an ink jet printer. The per page cost for 7 of a phase change printer is 8a wax thermal printer. consumable similar to

  19. Section One Passage B advantage • The main 9 of phase change technology is that they do not require expensive coated paper, but can print on many different paper types and surfaces. Some models can even print double sided, making them 10 producing small volume colored newsletters or brochures. suitable for

  20. Listening &Repeating • inkjet n. 喷墨 • impact n. / v. 击打;将…挤压到一起 • electrostatic a. 静电 • blend v.混合;融合 • palette n. 调色板;主色调 • tone n.色调;音调;语气;风格 • dither v. 抖动;犹豫不决 • cyan n.蓝绿色,青色 • magenta adj.紫红色,洋红色的 • trick v.欺骗 • magnifier n. 放大镜 • apparent adj. 可看见的;显然的

  21. Listening &Repeating • drawback n. 缺点;不利条件 • pigment n.色素;颜料 • consumable n. 消费品 • cousin n.同辈表亲(或堂亲) • emboss v. 压印浮凸字体(或图案);凹凸印 • cellophane n.赛璐玢(用于包装的玻璃纸) • ribbon n. (打字机或打印机的)色带;丝带 • coat v. 给…涂上一层;用…覆盖 • dot n. 小点;小圆点 • saturated adj. 渗透的,饱和的,浓的 • illustration n. 插图;图解;示例 • presentation n.介绍;陈述 • charts n.海图,图表 • proof n.印刷的校样

  22. Listening &Repeating • melt v. 融化;溶解 • spray v. 喷洒 • newsletter n. 时事通讯 • brochure n. 小册子 • …………………………………………………………………dye sublimation 染料升华 • wax thermal 热蜡转移 • phase change 相变 • ………………………………………………………………… • in that 因为 • suitable for 适合…的 • be made up of 由…组成 • similar to 和…一样

  23. Notes • 1. Wax thermal printers are first cousins to dye sub printers in that they heat and emboss an image from rolls of cellophane ribbons coated with three or four color wax pigments. 热蜡转移打印机与染料升华打印机技术上最接近,因为他们通过加热,用涂有三或四种彩色的蜡颜料的赛珞璐色带把图像以凸版印刷的方式印出。这里in that 引导表原因的从句,另外coated with three or four color wax pigments 是过去分词做后置定语修饰cellophane ribbons.

  24. Notes • 2. The main advantage of phase change technology is that they do not require expensive coated paper, but can print on many different paper types and surfaces. 相变技术主要的优点是不需要昂贵的涂复纸,而可以在多种不同类型的纸和表面上打印。这里that引导表语从句,解释相变技术的主要优点,but连接两个并列动词成分。 • 3. Some models can even print double sided, making them suitable for producing small volume colored newsletters or brochures. 有些型号的机器甚至还能双面打印,使其适合生产数量不大的彩色消息快报和宣传小册子。这里making them suitable for producing small volume colored newsletters or brochures中的making是现在分词做状语修饰some models.

  25. Section One Extra Reading Career in the Graphic Arts • CHOOSING A CAREER • The dictionary defines career as “a profession for which one trains and which is undertaken as permanent calling.” Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions you will have to make in your lifetime. What do you want to do with your future? Perhaps there is a career for you in the graphic arts. • Career opportunities are available in the industry now. But what about the future? Is the industry expanding or is it stagnant? Will additional personnel be needed when you are ready to enter the job market? Yes, career opportunities for talented young men and women will expand as the industry grows.

  26. Section One Extra Reading • THE JOB FOR YOU • The industry needs and will continue to need competent young women and men to fill a variety of jobs. Hundreds of different jobs exist. So how do you decide which one is for you? • Knowing yourself-your interests, your abilities, and your desires is the first step in choosing a career. The second step is to explore the job opportunities that open to you. • JOB OPPORTUNITIES • Job opportunities in the graphic arts are in six general categories. The categories and some of the jobs that comprise each are described in the following parts.

  27. Section One Extra Reading • CREATIVE PROFESSIONALS • Artist/ designer and editors are some creative professionals. People in those occupations create messages that are communicated graphically. The artist/designer is involved in a number of graphic arts activities. They work with writers and customers to design and lay out a job. Besides establishing a basic design, they select typefaces, create illustrations, and arrange various elements of the printed product. Editing involves correcting and polishing the text and illustrations that will make up the message. Editors may also select content and format for the printed product.

  28. Section One Extra Reading • CRAFTSPEOPLE • A craft is an occupation or trade requiring manual dexterity or specialized skills. Workers who possess these skills are called craftspeople, compositors, strippers, platemakers, process photographers, press operators, proofreaders, bookbinders, and papermaking machine tenders are some craftspeople employed by the graphic arts industry.

  29. Section One Extra Reading • TECHNOLOGISTS • Technologists, such as scientists and engineers, are needed to supply ideas and inventions that result in advancements in printing technology. Scientists and engineers may be employed directly by the industry or by suppliers such as press manufactures and chemical companies. Much research in the graphic arts is applied research. Its purpose is to discover new designs and processes that will have immediate value. Examples of projects that may be undertaken by a scientist are refinements in papermaking and improvements in the drying abilities of inks. Many different engineers serve the industry in a variety of ways. For example, the industrial engineer is concerned with improving production efficiency by eliminating waste, preventing delays, and reducing cost.

  30. Section One Extra Reading • TECHNICIANS • Technicians include quality control technician and estimator, etc. The quality control technician establishes standards for the printed product. Responsibilities also include developing inspection and testing procedures. The estimator figures the cost of producing a printed product. To do this, the estimator must know the cost of materials, labor and equipment that will be needed.

  31. Section One Extra Reading • MANAGERS AND OWNERS • Managers and owners are the policy and decision-makers in the industry. Production managers guide work through the production process. They establish schedules to insure the efficient use of labor, tools, equipment, and materials. It is still possible to establish a graphic arts company with a relatively small amount of money. The owner of a small graphic arts business is usually a craftsperson such as a compositor or press operator.

  32. Section One Extra Reading • TEACHERS AND TRAINERS • Education is essential to the continued progress of the graphic arts industry. Graphic arts teachers are needed for courses in industrial arts, vocational, and technical education. Instructor and trainers are also needed to teach courses and seminars with the industry itself.

  33. Listening &Repeating • profession n.行业,职业 • undertake v. 承担;从事;允诺 • permanent adj.永久的;长久的 • expand v. 扩大,增加(尺码、数量或重要性);扩展(业务);详细阐明 • stagnant adj.停滞的;不发展的;(水活空气)不流动而污浊的 • personnel n .( 组织或军队中的)全体人员,职员 • talented adj.有才能的;天才的 • competent adj.有能力的;足以胜任的;有决定权的 • category n. (人或事物的)类别,种类 • professional n. 专业人士 • typeface n.(印刷用的)字体 • polish v. 修改;润色;擦亮;磨光

  34. Listening &Repeating • content n. 内容;(书的)目录;容量 • format n.(出版物的)版式;(总体的)安排,计划;格式 • manual adj.(工作等)手工的,体力的;用手操作的 • dexterity n.熟练;技能 • craftspeople n. 工 匠;手艺人;工艺师 • platemaker n. 制版工 • proofreader n. 校对员 • bookbinder n.装订工 • supply v.提供,供应 • advancement n.推动;发展;(工作、社会等级等的)晋升 • supplier n.供应者;供货商

  35. Listening &Repeating • refinement n.改进,改善;精炼;改良品 • efficiency n.效率;功率 • eliminate v.消除;(比赛中)淘汰;消灭(尤指对手或敌人) • estimator n.估计员 • standard n.标准,规格 • inspection n.检查;检验;视察 • figure v. 计算(数量或成本);是重要部分;认定 • equipment n.设备;器材;装备 • policy n.政策;策略 • essential adj.必不可少的;极其重要的;基本的 • instructor n.教练;导师;(大学)讲师 • seminar n.研讨班;研讨会

  36. Section One Extra Reading-Notes • 1. Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions you will have to make in your lifetime. 选择职业是你在一生中所做的最重要的决定之一。这里是动名词做主语,即choosing a career做主语,同时you will have to make in your lifetime是定语从句,先行词是decisions, 省略了关系代词that。 • 2. Besides establishing a basic design, they select typefaces, create illustrations, and arrange various elements of the printed product. 除了进行主体设计外,还要选择字体、创作插图、安排印品上的各组成部分。这里现在分词establishing a basic design做状语,默认和后面的主语they一致,并且动作是主动进行的。

  37. Section One Extra Reading-Notes • 3. Editing involves correcting and polishing the text and illustrations that will make up the message. 编辑包含对组成原稿的文章和插图进行修改和润色。这里动名词editing做主语,并列名词the text 和illustrations做correct 和polish的宾语,同时that will make up the message为定语从句,修饰先行词the text and illustrations. • 4. Examples of projects that may be undertaken by a scientist are refinements in papermaking and improvements in the drying abilities of inks. 像精炼造纸及油墨干燥特性改善等项目就是科学家进行这方面研究的例子。这里主语是examples of projects,谓语为are, 宾语为并列名词refinements in papermaking 和improvements in the drying abilities of inks.其中,that may be undertaken by a scientist为定语从句修饰先行词projects.

  38. Section Two Practical Writing • 1. Useful words & expressions • in compliance with 按照 • representative 代表 • I.F.B = invitation for bids 招标 • duly 按时地 • in the name of 以…名义 • bidder 投标人 • schedule of price 估价表 • schedule of requirement 要求一览表 • specification compliance form 规格相应表 • qualification document 资格证明文件

  39. Section Two Practical Writing • bid security 投标保证金保函 • undersigned 下面签过字的 • provision 细则 • amendment 修改文件 • withdraw 撤销 • valid/validity 有效的/有效性 • forfeit 没收 • pertinent 相关的,切题的 • cable 电报 • official seal 公章

  40. Section Two Practical Writing • 2.Useful sentence patterns • The bid is valid for a period of … • The all official correspondence pertinent to this bid shall be addressed to…. • The total price for … is…. • Be aware that … • Take the responsibility and obligation for…

  41. Section Two Practical Writing - Sample

  42. Section Two Practical Writing - Sample

  43. Section Two Practical Writing - Sample

  44. Section Two Practical Writing • Task-based writing • Nantong No.4 Construction Group Co., Ltd. Wants to attend the bidding for Santoni Campus Jinshan Project, please try to write a letter of tender in name of this company.

  45. Section Three Mini-project • Write an essay on basis of information collecting from internet about the development of automobile in China.

  46. Passage A- Translation 印刷的发展 • 我们的祖先发展了许多种用于大量复制图文信息的工艺。印刷这一术语就是对这些工艺的总称。 • 最早的印刷方式是用手工雕刻木版印刷。全部图文信息先反转雕刻在木版上,然后给木版涂墨并且压印在要印刷的材料上,这种方法称为凸版印刷。 • 木刻版印刷有一重要缺陷,即每一新的图文信息需要雕刻一块新的木版,而且雕刻木版是一个又慢又繁琐的过程。随着活字的发明,这一障碍得到了克服。 • 活字由单个字符组成,可以组合在一起印刷出某一图文信息,拆开后再重新组合,形成新的图文信息。中国早在公元1041年就使用了由硬泥土做成的活字。十三世纪中叶朝鲜人使用黄铜铸造活字。

  47. Passage A- Translation • 1439年,约翰·谷登堡成为第一个用活字印刷的欧洲人。人们尚不清楚是他自己独立发明了这一工艺,还是他了解到了有关这一工艺在东方世界的发展情况。他不仅用活字来印刷,更重要的是他发展了铸造活字的实用方法。著名的谷登堡圣经就是西方世界最早用活字印刷的书籍之一。 • 早期的印刷是在手工操作的木制压力印刷机上完成的,在谷登堡时代,完成250张纸的印刷被看作是一整天的工作。十七世纪中叶,一天可以印刷2000页。今天,高速印刷机可以在一小时内印刷好几千张印品。

  48. Passage A- Translation • 在美国,第一台印刷机于1639年在马萨诸湾殖民区开业,美国的第一个印刷师Stevon Daye操作了这台机器。他的第一本书---《圣经诗篇全集》是在1640年印刷的,完成这样一本300页码,印量1700本的书的排字,印刷及装订几乎花了他一整年的时间。 • 美国最著名的印刷工是本杰明·弗兰克林,他于1728年在费城建立了自己的印刷企业。他的最著名的出版物包括当时主要殖民地报纸《宾夕法尼亚工报》以及1732年发行的《可怜的理查德的年鉴》。 • 近一百年来的发展使印刷工业发生了革命性的变化。印刷经历了由艺术到科学,由工艺到工业技术的转化。但是,印刷术的发展还没有终结,为了满足人们进行信息传播的需要,新材料,新设备及新工艺正被源源不断地创造出来。

  49. Passage A- Translation • 20世纪初,美国的亨利·福特创建了福特汽车公司。在那里,他完善了汽车设计并使汽车部件标准化。所有这一切为福特公司的汽车流水线以一种快速而又经济的方式生产汽车打下了基础。直到20世纪20年代末,福特一直是世界上汽车年生产量最大的公司。 • 现代汽车时代是一个标准化不断提高,技术平台共享和计算机辅助设计的时代。推广前轮驱动和全轮驱动技术,采用V6引擎配置和普及燃油喷射技术是其中最引人注目的发展。现代汽车的车身风格也发生了变化。如今,三种类型的汽车---掀背车、微型客车和运动型多功能汽车主宰着市场, 而汽车生产已经从制造简易老式汽车的小作坊发展为大规模生产高级汽车的跨国公司。 • 随着汽车工业的快速发展,新的车型在设计及性能方面会越来越好。实际存在的许多负面问题如能源危机、空气污染及交通拥堵也将被各国政府及科学家加以考虑并终将得到解决。

  50. Passage B- Translation 彩色打印机 • 正如有不同类型的汽车(轿车、卡车、摩托车等)一样,彩色打印机技术也有不同的类型,每种都最适合于某些用途。 不同类型的台式彩色打印机有:染料升华、热蜡转移、相变、喷墨、击打和静电等。如果你需要真正照片那样的高质量打印品,你将需要要一种染料升华打印机。在多种台式打印机中染料升华打印机很独特,这种打印机的实际颜色像画家在调色板上颜色那样被混合而成。 染料升华打印机与其它各种台式彩色打印机之间一个重要差别是,前者具有能生成连续色调之能力。其它所有的打印机都采用一种称为高频振动的工艺过程,它把几十万个微小的青蓝色、洋红色、黄色和墨色点,按一种让眼睛“受骗”看成连续色调的方式排列起来。然而,将它放在放大镜下看时,四种不同颜色的点分得很清楚。