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WCPSS US History. A JOINT PROJECT EVALUATION AND RESEARCH Glenda Haynie CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Melinda Stephani. PROJECT GOALS. Study, Improve, and Implement a WCPSS Value-Added Instructional Improvement Analysis Model

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wcpss us history

WCPSS US History

A JOINT PROJECT

EVALUATION AND RESEARCH

Glenda Haynie

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Melinda Stephani

slide2
PROJECT GOALS
  • Study, Improve, and Implement a WCPSS Value-Added Instructional Improvement Analysis Model
    • Collect WCPSS specific data that will help teachers, school, and district leadership understand their current practices in US History.
    • Identify and share best practices in US History.
  • Contribute to a series of studies that identify targets for overall systemic improvement
    • Identify the role of teachers, academic departments, principals, schools, and central services’ administrators in the school improvement process.
    • Identify the practices of effective improvement.
slide3
Starting Points for the WCPSS US History Study
  • A High School Graduation Course Requirement
  • Entering HS class of 06-07 must pass EOC Exam
  • 90 teachers at 19 High Schools in 2005-06.
  • New curriculum in 2003-04, first tested in 2005-06
  • 55% of classes are academic, 33% honors, and 11% AP. Two schools have honors and academic mixed. Two schools have a Paideia class.
district wide high school student success
DISTRICT-WIDE

HIGH SCHOOL

STUDENT SUCCESS

gaps in performance
Gaps in Performance

37.1%

9.2%

Male

Female

White

Black

level performance 2005 06
Level Performance 2005-06

Level III

Level IV

Level II

Level I

slide9
MEASURES

OF

SCHOOL SUCCESS

what are student residuals
What are Student Residuals?
  • A student residual is the difference between a student's EOC scale score and the expected scale score of 'like' WCPSS students. It is a result of a regression analysis that uses previous pretest scores and controls for factors such as special program services, and free or reduced lunch status.
  • > + 1 standard deviation (+5.89 in 2005-06 U. S. History) is significantly higher than other ‘like’ WCPSS students.
  • < - 1 standard deviation (-5.89 in 2005-06 U. S. History) is significantly lower than other ‘like’ WCPSS students .
      • NOTE: Standard deviation is at bottom of student residual roster and varies by subject and year.
residuals show value added by teachers and schools
RESIDUALS SHOW VALUE ADDED BY TEACHERS and SCHOOLS

Algebra I Regression Scatter Plot

100

90

80

Teacher A

70

2004-05 Algebra I Scale Score

Teacher B

60

50

40

30

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

8th Grade EOG Score (Converted To Edition One Scale)

what are school eoc effectiveness indices
What are School EOC Effectiveness Indices?
  • A School EOC Effectiveness Index is a z-score calculated by averaging all of the student residual scores for a particular test (e.g. U.S.History EOC) at a particular school and standardizing on the z scale. It can be used to compare a school’s performance with other school’s in the district.
  • > + 1 is significantly higher than other WCPSS schools
  • < - 1 is significantly lower than other WCPSS schools
slide17
Subjects in Study
  • Identified 29 2006-07 teachers of US History (32% of the 90 from 2005-06) that taught US History in 2001-02, 2002-03, 2005-06 and were teaching in 2006-07.
  • Calculated the average student residual by teacher across all classes for 2005-06, 2001-03 (2 years), and a combined 2001-03/2005-06.
  • Ranked teacher effectiveness from highest to lowest for 2005-06 and compared to previous and combined averages
slide18
Top Effective Teachers in 7 Schools
  • Top 10 teachers in 9 schools
  • Bottom 10 teachers in 7 schools
  • Three schools with top and bottom teachers. Bottom 4 teachers have a school colleague among the top teachers.
  • Residual averages ranged from -2.53 to 4.33
  • B1- B4 taught at the same schools as T1,T2, and T5 .
residual means and standard deviations
Teacher

School

Res_mean

Res_stdev

T1

S1

4.33

5.03

T2

S15

3.65

5.29

T3

S11

3.65

6.27

T4

S6

3.20

5.26

T5

S10

2.88

4.40

T6

S4

2.78

5.31

T7

S3

2.69

6.13

T8

S9

2.67

5.62

T9

S10

2.36

5.45

T10

S2

2.32

5.45

B10

S7

0.50

5.53

B9

S5

0.46

4.58

B8

S8

0.29

5.66

B7

S14

0.15

5.48

B6

S5

-0.37

6.79

B5

S8

-0.68

5.12

B4

S1

-1.08

5.86

B3

S10

-1.22

5.60

B2

S15

-2.22

5.16

B1

S15

-2.53

6.00

Residual Means and Standard Deviations
slide20
EOC PERFORMANCE
  • Percent at Level III or IV
  • White Student Proficiency
  • Top teachers ranged from 77% to 100% with 9 teachers above 90%
  • Bottom teachers ranged from 25% to 99% with 1 above 90%
  • Black Student Proficiency
    • Top teachers ranged from 33 % to 100% with 5 teachers above 90%
  • Bottom teachers ranged from 30% to 86% with 0 above 90%
percentage proficiency 2005 06
Teacher

School

% prof white

n

%prof black

n

T1

S1

94

66

100

9

T2

S15

100

79

100

4

T3

S11

77

48

75

12

T4

S6

94

32

100

12

T5

S10

94

32

100

12

T6

S4

96

118

100

7

T7

S3

93

88

50

2

T8

S9

97

29

33

9

T9

S10

93

92

64

11

T10

S2

98

50

na

none

B10

S7

83

54

71

24

B9

S5

99

86

86

7

B8

S8

73

40

53

40

B7

S14

25

12

30

20

B6

S5

72

78

56

25

B5

S8

86

15

50

6

B4

S1

87

47

41

22

B3

S10

75

36

56

16

B2

S15

65

79

42

31

B1

S15

83

18

80

5

Percentage Proficiency 2005-06
student assignments in courses that take the u s history eoc exam
Student Assignments in courses that take the U. S. History EOC exam
  • Top Teachers
    • 3 AP only, 1 honors only, 1 honors and AP,

3 honors and academic, and 2 all three levels

  • Bottom Teachers
    • 1 honors and AP, 3 honors and academic, 3 academic, and 3 all three levels

There were Top teachers who exhibited success with each level of student.

Yet there were more AP classes among Top teachers and more academic classes among Bottom teachers.

level performance
100%

IV top

90%

80%

70%

IV bottom

60%

50%

III

40%

30%

II

20%

10%

I

0%

AP TOP

AP Bottom

Honors Top

Honors

Academic

Academic

ALL

Bottom

Top

Bottom

students

Level Performance
comparing top with bottom
Comparing Top with Bottom

Studying Teacher Effectiveness

  • Teacher Survey
  • Classroom Observations
  • School Focus Groups
  • Teacher Focus Groups
pacing of curriculum consistent
Pacing of Curriculum Consistent
  • All teachers of the study (Top and Bottom) were teaching the North Carolina standard course of study using pacing consistent with WCPSS Pacing Guide.
how do teachers get to the top
How do teachers get to the top?
  • Top teachers had a more complete package of rigor, relevance, and relationship strategies than bottom teachers.
  • Bottom teachers were lacking in one or more key areas found in ALL Top teachers.
four areas of comparison
Four Areas of Comparison
  • A. Intellectual Demand
  • B. Intellectual Enrichment
  • C. Time Management
  • D. Student-Centered versus

Teacher- Centered Classrooms

a intellectual demand
A. Intellectual Demand
  • Top teachers use:
    • higher-ordered thinking skills in questioning and in discussion
    • directed questioning. All students are called upon to participate and are kept engaged throughout the class period
  • Top teachers had high academic expectations of students.
expectations of students
Expectations of students
  • Top teachers expect that students can learn to read, take and organize notes, make connections, analyze, and respond to higher-order thinking skill questions. The acquisition of facts happens within a sense-making context.

Examples: teaching how to read a history text, quizzing on pre-readings, requiring a set organization of notes, posing questions on connections and themes, using political cartoons and short video clips.

examples of higher order questions
Examples of Higher-Order Questions
  • What is the difference between a colony and a protectorate?
  • Why is President Roosevelt drawn so large in this cartoon?
  • What role did heroes play in the 1920s?
examples of lower order questioning
Examples of Lower-Order Questioning
  • Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
  • When did the Civil War occur?
  • Who was President during the Vietnam War?
summarizing
Summarizing
  • Top teachers provide a clear note taking structure for students.
  • Top teachers lead students in seeing similarities and differences.
  • Top teachers hold students responsible for all history studied and use cumulative questions regularly on quizzes and tests.
b intellectual enrichment
B. Intellectual Enrichment
  • Top teachers:
    • have basic content knowledge and show evidence of continued learning as a professional.
    • infuse supplementary content information into the classroom
    • develop many of their own materials rather than relying solely on publisher-supplied materials.
  • More top than bottom teachers have efficient focused planning times with colleagues.
teachers build content knowledge
Teachers build content knowledge
  • ALL TOP Teachers use outside class time reading and studying their content knowledge. They develop background knowledge through outside pleasure reading.

A representative quote was, “I teach history because I love to study and read about history. I am a history nerd”

content planning
Content Planning
  • Top teachers use their background knowledge to prepare student guides, graphic organizers, warm-up questions, etc. They do not rely solely on textbooks, handouts, worksheets that are prepared by commercial vendors. They plan with peers (in their schools or other schools)

A representative quote was, “The textbook is not the curriculum. No boring worksheets used in my class.”

c time management
C. Time Management
  • Top teachers:
    • Teach bell to bell.
    • Use an invigorated delivery rate.
    • Use an effective Lecture/Discussion method.
d student centered classrooms
D. Student-Centered Classrooms
  • Top teachers:
    • connect the content to current events and student’s lives.
    • teach students to be historians.
    • build positive relationships with kids.
connections
Connections
  • Top teachers connect history to current events.
  • Top teachers connect history to their lives and their students, and help students imagine themselves in historical settings.
  • Top teachers connect history in themes across time into the present.

Examples: student reports on newspaper articles, connecting Seward’s folly to Ms.----’s folly in class yesterday, asking the question, “What would happen if you ------?, explaining “safety valve” in connection to the teacher’s prom experiences in high school, connecting John Brown to Pancho Villa to bin Laden (all individual fugitives that were/are hard to catch)

student affirmation
Student Affirmation
  • Top Teachers consistently give positive feedback on the quality of student work, effort, and ability. Top teachers believe that all students can succeed at a high level.

Representative quotes: ”You are the greatest kids. I am so proud of what my students can do.”, “My job is to connect the dots. You have so much knowledge.” “I know that you know this.” “You are so smart. The jeopardy questions are too easy for you.”

A student said, “We did so good on this.”

class atmosphere
Class Atmosphere
  • Top teachers create an atmosphere of mutual respect where inquiry, wrong answers, personal challenge, collaboration, and disequilibrium provide opportunities for learning for all students.
  • Top teachers are enthusiastic. Class is FUN! Students are actively engaged. There is no sleeping or off-task behaviors.
summary of classroom observations top versus bottom teachers in four comparison areas
SUMMARY OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS TOP VERSUS BOTTOM TEACHERS IN FOUR COMPARISON AREAS
conclusions about top teachers
Conclusions about Top Teachers
  • TOP TEACHERS:
    • Expected all students to participate in class,
    • Taught all students to read, take and organize notes, make connections and analyze historical texts,
    • Placed the acquisition of facts within a sense-making context,
    • Used directed higher-order thinking skill questions with all students,
    • Have basic content knowledge and show evidence of continued learning as a professional,
    • Infuse supplementary content information into the classroom,
    • Develop many of their own materials rather than relying solely on publisher-supplied materials,
    • Have efficient focused planning times with colleagues,
    • Teach bell to bell,
    • Use an invigorated delivery rate,
    • Use an effective Lecture/Discussion method,
    • Connect the content to current events and student’s lives,
    • Teach students to be historians, and
    • Build positive relationships with kids.
school leadership
SCHOOL LEADERSHIP
  • Develop a school plan that aligns to the standard course of study, emphasizing rigor and relevance.
  • Support and expect meaningful common planning for teachers.
  • Share results data with teachers including effectiveness rosters and indices.
  • Develop a scheduling plan that encourages a concentration in American history and places first-year teachers in non-EOC courses.
  • Support a school culture that promotes open discourse at all levels.
teachers
TEACHERS
  • Study standard course of study and EOC testing program.
  • Study goal summaries.
  • Study residual rosters .
  • Plan with other teachers.
  • Understand and implement Marzano strategies.
  • Use and/or develop a school plan.
  • Study American history to deepen depth of content knowledge and enrich classroom instruction.
  • Reflect on performance data and instructional practice.
  • Have high, rigorous expectations of all students.
district leadership
DISTRICT LEADERSHIP
  • Make observations of most effective schools and teachers that can be shared district-wide.
  • Provide workshops on implementing Marzano strategies.
  • Support school wide improvement efforts based on top school models.
  • Support teacher improvement efforts.
  • Provide data to teachers and schools on their effectiveness.
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