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Fighting for Freedom . (and other stuff). Who’s in control here, anyway?. Haiti: The Model for Revolution. Peninsulares People born in Spain. Fewest Peopl e. Most Power. Creoles People of European heritage, but born in the Americas. Mestizos

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fighting for freedom

Fighting for Freedom

(and other stuff)

haiti the model for revolution
Haiti: The Model for Revolution


People born in Spain

Fewest People

Most Power


People of European heritage, but born in the Americas


People of mixed heritage: Native American & European


People of mixed heritage: African & European

Native Americans & people of African heritage

Least Power

Most People

haiti the model for revolution2
Haiti: The Model for Revolution
  • We have known how to face dangers to obtain our liberty, we shall know how to brave death to maintain it.
  • -Toussaint L’Ouverture
haiti the model for revolution3
Haiti: The Model for Revolution
  • The colony belonged to France.
  • The majority of its inhabitants were slaves.
  • A rebellion was led by Toussaint L’Ouverturein 1791 with 100,000 slaves.
  • He believed that God wished to abolish slavery and had called him to free the black African slaves from their white masters .
haiti the model for revolution4
Haiti: The Model for Revolution
  • In 1793 France voted to end slavery.
  • During the French Revolution, L’Ouverture agreed to help the French army eject the British and Spanish.
  • Toussaint won 7 battles in 7 days and became a defacto governor of the colony.
  • After the revolution Napoleon gave in to the plantation owners and reinstated slavery.
haiti the model for revolution5
Haiti: The Model for Revolution
  • L’Ouverture was invited to France for negotiations, but was tricked and thrown into prison, where he died.
  • The revolution continued without him and in 1804, Haiti declared its independence.
  • This is the only successful slave revolt in history

My Children, a new dispensation comes to us today…Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act at once.

-Father Hidalgo

Father Hidalgo


Miguel Hidalgo was a brilliant young student from a wealthy creole family.

  • He was called El Zorro—“the Fox”—for his cleverness.
  • He is also called the “Father of Mexican Independence”
  • He was ordained a priest and began to teach theology

Father Hidalgo


When Hidalgo became the parish priest in Dolores in 1802, he worked to improve conditions for the local peasants.

  • He encouraged new ways of farming, such as planting grapevines, and helped them start small handicraft industries.
  • Spanish authorities were suspicious of these activities.

Father Hidalgo


September 16, 1810: Father Hidalgo issues his famous speech, Grito de Delores, for Mexican independence.

  • The mestizos and Native Americans revolted against the power of the Penisulares and the Creoles.
  • Hidalgo was captured while trying to escape into the U.S. and executed.

Father Hidalgo


Independence was not achieved until 1821 when the Creoles declared independence from Spain.

  • In 1823, the nations of Central America declared independence from Mexico.

Father Hidalgo

the great liberator
The Great Liberator

“I have been chosen by fate to break your chains…Fight and you shall win”

simon bolivar
Simon Bolivar
  • As a creole, Bolivar was tired of being ruled by European policies that were unfair
  • His life’s goal was to liberate his homeland
  • He wanted to unite all of Spain’s South American colonies into one country known as Gran Colombia (similar to the U.S.)
simon bolivar1
Simon Bolivar
  • He fought in a series of revolts against Spanish rule from 1808-1825.
  • In 1821 Gran Colombia was created under Bolívar’s leadership. This federation included much of what is now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador.
  • He retired from politics in poor health in 1830.
simon bolivar2
Simon Bolivar
  • Bolivar is called “The George Washington of South America”.
  • Nearly every town plaza in South America has a statue of Bolivar.

Spanish-American War

  • Originally, the U.S. defended Cuba in a rebellion against Spain in 1898 (Spanish-American War).
  • We were protecting sugarcane plantations owned by American businesses.
  • We gained control of Cuba & Puerto Rico and later helped Cuba set up a new government & military.

Cuban Revolution

  • From 1902-1950’s there were a series of leaders, both elected and dictators.
  • Fidel Castro, a lawyer, led a

group of rebels against the

corrupt government of


  • They were successful and

took over the government

in 1959.


Cold War

  • Castro came to power during the Cold War & chose to side with the Soviet Union instead of the U.S.
  • He set up a Communist government and killed or imprisoned those that opposed him.
  • The poor supported Castro because they got improved education & healthcare, but the successful Cubans did not like losing their property.
  • The U.S. cut off ties with Cuba in 1961.

Modern Day Rebellion

  • The Zapatista guerilla movement began in
  • 1994 in southern Mexico.
  • It was a group of Native Americans that was
  • rebelling against the Mexican government.
  • It was named for and Indian farmer and hero of
  • the 1910 Revolution, Emiliano Zapata.

Modern Day Rebellion

  • The Zapatistas were protesting
    • Poverty faced by farmers in the region
    • NAFTA
    • Changes in land ownership laws

Modern Day Rebellion

  • The Zapatistas took control of 4 major towns.
  • More than 100 people were killed in the fighting
  • The government called for a cease-fire and negotiations began.
  • Improvements that came as a result:
    • Improved housing & education
    • Fair division of land
    • Representation of Native Americans in the legislature
if i could join one of the latin american independence movements it would be because
If I could join one of the Latin American independence movements, it would be ___________________ because ______________________.