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    2. Intro: As SFPC is now fully involved in interdenominational, international and intercultural mission, knowing team work and conflict resolution within the church, mission organizations it partners with and the culture of people group it is working with are very important.

    3. 4 Levels of Mission Team work • Mission team work in sending/supporting church • Mission team work between sending/supporting church and mission organizations • Mission team work between sending/supporting church and missionaries • Mission team work in mission fields

    4. Good team work will result in fruitful ministries

    5. Conflict and disunity among leaders and members, Satan’s strategy to weaken and destroy the Church撒旦使教會軟弱並進而摧毀教會的策略:使教會領袖間及會友間有衝突,不合一.

    6. What is a team?團隊是什麼?

    7. A team – A group of people who are diverse in culture, nationality, region, language, denomination, education, wealth, health, gender, age and personality, in a situation where they have to make decisions that affect all of them.團隊是一群有不同文化,國籍,地方,語言,宗派,教育,社經地位,性別,年紀,性格等的人,必須在一個情況下一起做關乎他們每個人的決定.

    8. Team decision-making methods團隊做決定的模式 • Leader decides: 領袖決定 • Leader decides after input from others: 領袖徵詢其他人意見後做決定 • Discussion, then decision by majority vote: 討論後,用多數決來定案 • Discussion, then decision when all agree: 討論後,當所有人都同意時才做決定

    9. Final questions on decision-making in team: • Who usually makes the final decision? 誰做最後決定 • How much consultation do people expect or desire? 成員希望領袖對他們的諮詢到什麼程度 • How easily do people cope with decisions they don’t agree with?當決議不如所願時,成員的配合度如何? • If you want input from everyone, how do you go about getting it?如果你希望重視所有成員的意見,你要如何得到這些意見?

    10. Team Work in Diversity在多樣性中的團隊關係

    11. 1. Diversity in nationalities/ethnicities/culture 不同的國籍,民族,文化

    12. Power Distance 權力的距離 Hong Kong – 68 West Africa – 77 New Zealand – 22 South Korea – 60 Canada – 39 Phillipines – 94 Peru – 64 USA – 40 UK – 35 India – 77 Taiwan? Impact of power distance in Korean ferry disaster incidence

    13. Large power distance means: Parents teach children to obey, and expect respect Teachers take the initiative, and expect respect Subordinates expect to be told what to do Small power distance means: Parents and children treat each other as equals Teachers expect students to take initiative Subordinates expect to be consulted

    14. Individualism vs Collectivism個人主義 vs. 集體文化 • “Only a minority of [more affluent] cultures can afford to place the interests of the individual over the group” Hong Kong – 25 West Africa – 20 New Zealand – 79 South Korea – 18 Canada – 80 Phillipines – 32 Peru – 16 USA – 91 UK – 89 India – 48 Taiwan?

    15. Individualist cultures: Loose ties between individuals People look only after themselves and the immediate family Collectivist cultures: Strong cohesive and lifetime groups which protect people These groups expect unquestioning loyalty

    16. Types of Christian Leadership 基督徒的領導模式 • Charismatic (individual) leadership – many times not sustainable 運用個人領袖魅力的領導:很難持久 • Not power play, but humility and equality • 基督徒的領導不是權力遊戲,而是謙卑及平等 • Collective and consultative leadership: • Most sustainable leadership model • 不是個人主義,而是集體及諮商式的領導

    17. 2. Diversity intheology/doctrine不同的神學及教義 • Do not major in minors 不要專注細節 • Mike Twain: In the Bible – what I do not understand do not bother me; it is what I understand but could not do it bother me • 聖經中我讀不懂的部份不使我憂心, • 但我讀懂卻做不到的才使我憂心

    18. 3. Diversity in Age:不同年齡層* How does generation gap affect team work? 不同年齡層的代溝如何影響團隊關係?*

    19. Seniors (born before 1926) “We will succeed”? Builders (born 1927- 1945) “We will prevail” Boomers (born 1946-1964) “We will be satisfied” Gen X (born 1965-1983) “This hard world” Gen Y and younger (born 1984-2000) “We will be authentic” Generational Worldview and Characteristic Traits不同年齡層的世界觀及特性

    20. 4. Diversity of personality不同的性格

    21. Myers-Briggs ideas: • Sensing people – Making sense, finding facts and information • 感官的人:希望找出意義,事實及資訊 • Intuitive people – Explore possibilities, big picture • 直覺的人:尋找可能性,大方向(全面的圖像) • Thinking people – analysis of data • 思考的人:分析資料 • Feeling people – Concerned about impact on people involved • 感受的人:關心這決定對那些相關的人的影響

    22. So if you want to convince everyone, what do you do? 如果你要說服每個人(以上的各式各樣的人),你要怎麼做?

    23. 5. Gender Diversity 不同的性別

    24. Attitude towards the status and role of women in leadership team • 我們對婦女在領導團隊的地位及角色的態度如何? • How would you respond to differences of opinion or conviction about these matters? • 當團隊成員對事情有不同的意見或信念時,你會如何回應?

    25. To be a good team player: 如何成為好的團隊同工 • Identify your own personality and generational worldviews 了解自己的性格及自己年齡層的世界觀 • Reflect on your previous experience 反醒自己過去的團隊經驗 • Expect misunderstandings 同工間的誤會是不可免的 • Learn to deal with failure 學習處理失敗

    26. To be a good team player cont • Grow deep in God and walk closely with Him • 在主裡更深的成長,與神緊密同行 • Understand and live by God’s grace了解並按神恩典的原則而活 • Essential attitudes: Respect & Determination to understand (Philp 2:1-11; James 1:19) 基本的態度:彼此尊重並下決心彼此了解

    27. To be a good team player cont Philippians 2:1-4 “In humility consider others better than yourselves”(v3b) Ephesians 4:1-6 To live a life worthy of our calling, our name, Christian, we are to make every effort to keep the unity (vv1&3) Commitment for Unity = A mark of Christian maturity

    28. What can weaken and even destroy team work, and for that matter, the Church and its mission? 有何可以使團隊(教會)軟弱,或破壞?

    29. Conflict Conflict and disunity in leadership team as well as in the church and mission organizations and mission fields, if not resolved, can weaken and destroy the Church 如果教會領袖團隊的衝突沒有處理好,可以使教會軟弱,或破壞.

    30. Why do we have conflicts? 為何我們會有衝突?

    31. Because we are all different, different in: • Nationality, ethnicity • Theology, doctrine • Age • Personality • Gender

    32. CONFLICT IS ALREADY A FACT OF LIFE 衝突是生活中不可避免的 When two or more individuals are put together in close contact, conflict is aggravated 當二個以上的人在一起,很密切的一起同工,衝突的可能性就更大了

    33. As Christians we may have two reactions: 身為基督徒,我們可能對此有二種反應 We assume that because we are Christians we shall not have conflicts with other Christians 因為我們是基督徒,所以我們不會(不該)有衝突 OR 或者 We know we have them and feel guilty because we think we should not have them 我們知道有衝突,但覺得我們不該有衝突,而覺得有罪惡感

    34. Signs of Conflict How do we know that there is conflict in the Church, Mission Organization, Mission Field?

    35. If and when communication breaks down, then we know that there is conflict

    36. How do we communicate? 我們如何溝通?

    37. We communicate我們溝通的模式 • Verbal口語的 15%, Non-verbal非口語的 85% • Verbal communications:口語的溝通 • Words and meanings:用字和其意義 • Tone and volume of voice聲調和聲量 • Style of speech說話的風格(嘲諷,指桑罵槐等)

    38. Non-verbal communications:非口語的溝通 • Body posture:身體的位置 • Body contacts:身體的接觸 • Appearance:外觀 • Physical distance:身體的距離 • Eye contact:眼睛的接觸 • Facial expression:臉部表情 • Gestures姿勢

    39. If and when these communication lines are broken down or they are not as they used to be, then, there is conflict


    41. Conflicts, when resolved healthily can make team members more united and the team stronger

    42. Worldviews: DIFFERENT, BUT NOT NECESSARILY WRONG 有差異,但沒有對錯 Therefore understanding other people’s worldview is of paramount importance in order to be able to solve conflicts

    43. Withdrawal, surrender (taking all the blame), defeating others by argument will not resolve conflicts

    44. 6 GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING CONSENSUS 達成共識的6個指引 (Fiske & Clark) • Show respect:表達尊重 • Recognize and define the issues: 找出並釐清問題

    45. Seek a variety of solutions尋找每個可能的解決方案 • - Research 調查研究 • - Brainstorm 腦力激盪 • Collaborate to reach a mutual solution一起找出共同的解決方案 • Be reliable要守信可靠 • - Stay committed to agreements reached要委身於所同意的決定 • - Cooperate and participate要合作參與執行 • Preserve the relationships要保守好的關係

    46. ASIAN & WESTERN VIEWS OF RESOLVING CONFLICTS COLLECTIVE CULTURAL WAY (Asian) • Indirect, lateral, ambiguous, cautious, non-confrontational, subtle ways, tactful approach, vague, grey areas • Communal implications, entangled, holistic, harmony, solidarity, honour, face-saving • Third party mediation (objectivity, emotional distance, face-saving transferred to mediator, honour, delay for cooling off and intervening) • Relational, emotional approach URBANISED CULTURAL WAY • Direct, open, one-to-one negotiation, specific, frank demands, blunt, assertive, confrontational, explicit, open, self-disclosure of feelings, transparent, black & white • Private matter, isolated • Individual, personal. Third party only at last stage and mainly facilitating • Factual & intuitive approach to problem, but strict principles followed for resolution

    47. Jesus Way of Conflict Resolution Matthew 18:15-20

    48. Vv 19-20 If there is conflict, God cannot answer our prayers, God cannot bless the church and missions

    49. First step (v15): The offended/hurt initiates conflict resolution. He/she goes to the perpetrator alone. Many conflicts could be resolved in this level. However, if the perpetrator would not listen,

    50. 2nd step (v16): He/she takes one or two along with him/her. Most conflicts could be resolved in this level. However, if the perpetrator would not still listen,