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Micronutrient rich natural products for health Natural Sources of Micronutrients . K. Madhavan Nair, PhD Scientist E Micronutrient research group Department of Biophysics National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR). Conference on Micronutrient Fortification of Foods:

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micronutrient rich natural products for health natural sources of micronutrients

Micronutrient rich natural products for healthNatural Sources of Micronutrients

K. Madhavan Nair, PhD

Scientist E

Micronutrient research group

Department of Biophysics

National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR)

Conference on Micronutrient Fortification of Foods:

Science, Application & Management

7-8 January 2011

balanced diet
BALANCED DIET

Contain different types of food in such quantities and proportions that the need for energy, protein, minerals and vitamin is not only met, but a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness.

slide3

Food groups and balanced diet and RDA of micronutrients for a reference man

CEREALS & MILLETS (400g)

PULSES & LEGUMES (80g)

VEGETABLES & FRUITS (400g)

MEAT, FISH AND POULTRY (60g)

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (300ml)

FATS & OILS (30g)

(ICMR Nutrient requirement and recommended dietary allowance for Indians, Edition 2010)

slide4

Natural Sources of Micronutrients

Primary Sources

Contains the micronutrients

Secondary Source

Enhances utilization of the micronutrient

Food

Non Food

Plant source

Animal Source

Animal foods like red meat also improve absorption of micronutrients from plant sources

slide6

IRON

VITAMIN C

FOLATE

ZINC

slide7

The Complexities Of Bioavailability In Human Nutriture

  • Welch R M , Graham R D J. Exp. Bot. 2004;55:353-364
slide8

Processing to Improve Mineral Bioavailability

Enzymatic Methods

  • Germination , fermentation , Malting involve enzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid .

Non Enzymatic Methods

  • Thermal processing , soaking , milling can reduce phytic acid content of certain plant based staples .

.

secondary sources of micronutrients
Secondary Sources of Micronutrients

These improve nutrient availability and/or utilization

Dietary modifications

Functional foods (Prebiotics and Probiotics)

slide10

Dietary modifications: Examples of food sources that promote micronutrient bioavailability

slide11

Natural sources and non-heme iron absorption

The potency of 100g of cooked meat in enhancing iron absorption has been graded as equal to that of 100mg ascorbic acid.

A 30 g addition of most fruits that are moderate to high in ascorbic acid is effective in increasing the iron availability in typical wheat based meals. Exceptions are the ones, which have high levels of polyphenols.

slide12

Hemoglobin repletion in anemic adolescent girls

The experimental group

100 g guava fruit with the lunch and dinner meals, ascorbic acid of 212 mg per meal, molar ratio of 25:1.

Impact

19 g/L increase in hemoglobin from initial 107g/L to final 129g/L

3 g/L in control group from 110 to 113 L.

Seshadri J Human Nutr Appl Nutr 39A: 151-54, 1985.

slide13

What is striking is that natural foods have the capacity to increase iron absorption several fold especially in iron deplete subjects.

  • Ascorbic acid intake can be improved by :
    • Inclusion of fresh fruits and vegetables
    • Minimal processing
    • Processing which may improve ascorbic acid content , eg germination

Nair KM and Iyengar V . Iron content, bioavailability & factors affecting iron status of Indians. Indian J Med Res 130, November 2009, pp 634-645

slide14

Vitamin A and pro carotenoids

Bio availability

Preformed vitamin A 70-90%.

Pro carotenoids varies with fat intake, type of food and its preparation.

Bio conversion:

Purified beta carotene in oil – 2 g will yields 1 g of retinol (2:1 ratio)

In food 6:1– 12:1, 8:1.

IOM, 2000, ICMR 2010

red palm oil
Red Palm Oil

Red palm oil (RPO), derived from the mesocarp of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), is rich source of β-carotene .

Serum retinol concentrations in schoolchildren before and after supplementation with red palm oil or vitamin A

Rukmini C. Red palm oil to combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Food Nutr Bull 1994;15:126–9.

underutilized plant food sources rich in carotene mg 100g
Underutilized Plant Food Sources Rich In β-Carotene (mg/100g)
  • Rajyalakshmi P, Venkatalakshmi K and Venkatalakshmamma K . Total carotenoid and beta-carotene contents of forest green leafy vegetables consumed by tribals of south India . Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 56: 225–238, 2001.
  • Kidmose U et al. Content of carotenoids in commonly consumed Asian vegetables and stability and extractability during frying. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 562–571
slide17

Improving Micronutrient Content In Plant Foods : Biotechnical Approaches

Orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes(OFSP)

The International Potato Center , South West and Central Asia

spirulina the edible microorganism
Spirulina :The Edible Microorganism

Spirulina - food produced primarily from two species of cyan bacteria: arthrospira platensis, and arthrospira maxima .

Spirulina

62% amino acid content

70-170mg/100g a good source of β-carotene

127–244 µg / 100 g exceptionally high vitamin B-12 content, though its bioavailability is debated .

Non Food Sources

slide21

Conclusions

Natural sources of micronutrients are abundant.

Great potential for converting them into products either to increase the micronutrient intake or their bioavailability