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Medicine. Aleks Purins & Emme McCabe. Source. 1) Medieval Islamic Medicine By: Peter E. Porman 2) The Muslim Almanac By: Acim A. Nenji 3) Arab World Notebook By: Basheer K. Nijim et. al. The Islamic World By: L. Esposito 5) By: Albert S. Lyons 6).

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Aleks Purins & Emme McCabe



1) Medieval Islamic Medicine

By: Peter E. Porman

2) The Muslim Almanac

By: Acim A. Nenji

3) Arab World Notebook

By: Basheer K. Nijim et. al.

The Islamic World

By: L. Esposito


By: Albert S. Lyons



After life Source 1 S Page 162

Islamic medical traditions had a profound influence in Europe

Islamic medicine faced challenges from competing medical systems, most notably modern Western medicine.


Background Source 3S p. 206-207

Crusades in 11th and 12th centuries introduced Europe to Arab medicine, when wounded crusaders were lucky enough to be treated by Arab “hakim”.

Arab “hakim” were wise men

Arabs were the first to use anesthesia

First hospital was established in 8th century in Baghdad.

Physicians were required to pass qualifying exams before they could practice


Background Source 3S p. 206

Hospitals had separate wards for the insane and for different diseases, pharmacies laboratories, medical libraries, and medical training centers

After crusades, most important medical work in Arabic were translated into Latin and guided European medicine until the 17th century


Background-Facilities Source 3Q p. 206-207

“Sweet music played at night to soothe the sleepless, and there were some 50 storytellers to amuse the patients. On discharge, each patient was given a quantity of money to tide him over during his convalescence- the earliest known form of social rehabilitation”


Physicians Source 3S p. 206-207

3 most influential medical authors were…

Ar-Razi (865-925)

Ibn-Sina (980-1037)

Az-Zahrawi (d. 1013)

Ar-Razi was “the unchallenged chief physician of muslims”


Physicians –Ar-Razi Source 3S p. 206-207

Ar-Razi was born in Persia

He trained in Baghdad, and worked at a hospital in Teheran

Wrote 100 major scientific works

Wrote a detailed rendition about small pox

Wrote a great encyclopedia that was translated into Latin in 1279


Physicians-Ar-Razi Source 3Q p. 206-207

“Ar-Razi led the fight against quacks and Charlatans in health fields, called for consultation and mutual trust between skilled physicians, and favored a family-doctor practice. He warned patients that changing from one doctor to another would waste their, health, and time. He promoted physiotherapy pointing out that hopeful comments from doctors encouraged patients, made them feel better. He… stressed the importance of a balance diet for the preservation or restoration of good health. And he admired practitioners to avoid extravagance to dress, eat, and live simply.”


Physician-Ibn-Sina Source 3S p. 207

Ibn-Sina was also Persian

He wrote a famous encyclopedia in Arabic called the Canun

It summarized all of Greek, Arabic, Hindu, and Persian medicine

Ibn-Sina’s Canun described every known disease both physical and mental and every method of treatment and all the medications to use

Encyclopedia evaluated 760 drugs in use a the time

The Canun was used in western medicine and was basic medical text for more that 5 centuries


Physicians-Ibn-Sina Source 3S p. 207

Canun had 20 editions in Latin and several in Hebrew

Canun was used in Muslim medicine for 19 centuries

Medicine was only one of Ibn-Sina’s interests

He also studies, natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, and Islamic law were all subjects he mastered before medicine

Started studying medicine at age of 16

At 18 he was a famous physician. Foreign rulers traveled to Persia to be treated by him

He was the first “Renaissance Man”


Physicians- Az-Zahrawi Source 3S p. 207

Az-Zahrawi was Arab Spain

He was reffered to as “chief of all surgeons” in Europe until 16th century

He wrote a book that contained 200 of the earliest known illustrations of surgical instuments in medieval literature

He was the first to take account of heredity nature when he created descriptions of hemophilia


Methodology and Treatment Source 5S p. 1

  • Arabist practitioners used almost the same methods as the Greeks and Romans
  • Diagnosis was based on six criteria: the patient's behavior; the excriment; the other secretions from the body; swellings; the character of pain; and the location of pain
  • Pulse was also taken and noted during exams
  • The influence of the stars in disease was also a role during exams

Methods and Treatment Source 5S p. 1

  • examining urine (urinscopy) was important
  • half-filled urine flask a symbol of the physcician
  • Urine's color, consistency, sediment, smell, and taste helped determine what was wrong with the patient. It also helped determine treatment
  • Surgery was not popular and was in low regard
  • Surgery was done by untrained folk doctors, laymen, and charlatans
  • Only some physcians practiced surgery and wrote about it

Methodology and Treatment Source 5S p. 1

  • Lithotomy kept having bad results
  • Most common Arabic surgical technique was cauterization
  • Cauterization was used for both internal and external diseases
  • Anesthesia was a sponge soaked in narcotic acid, held to the mouth or nose
  • Salves were applied during surgery to heal parts

Methodology and Treatment Source 5S p. 1

  • Arabic therapy used many different drugs
  • De Materia Medica of Dioscorides(herb) was studied closely
  • New medications, including mineral, vegatable, and animal substances, were added to the herb to make Arabist materia medica
  • Ambergris, camphor, cloves, myrrh, and senna were introduced, and also syrups, juleps, elixers and many different mixtures

Physicians and doctors Source 5S p. 1

  • In early Islam, medical practice was still carried on by Christian and Jewish physicians
  • Not much prejudice against non-Muslim doctors
  • Muslim physicians grew rapidly when Alexandria became a center of Muslim intellectual life
  • Physicians needed training in a hospital or a teaching center
  • Physicians were ready when they got certifacation from their teachers

Physicians and doctors Source 5S p. 1

  • mid-wives were the only women who were allowed to practice medicine
  • However, the seriously ill was treated by male physicians
  • Academies, schools, and libraries were found in mosques and hospitals in the Islam world
  • Medicine was usually one of the discilines taught

Facilities and public health Source 5S p. 1

  • The best known hospitals in the Middle ages were in Baghdad, Damascus, and Cairo
  • The best hospitals in Baghdad were founded in the 10th century
  • Hospitals and medical schools in Damascus were elagent and very good
  • The largest and best hospital was the Mansur Hospital in Cairo, founded in 19th century

Facilities and public health Source 5S p. 1

  • The Mansur was built by many workers and was built over a long time
  • In the Mansur, there were seperate wards for different diseases-fevers, eye conditions,diarrhea,wounds, pregnant women-
  • On discharge, each patient got five gold pieces to help him/her go support themselves