Introduction to Online Education Fundamentals. For Administrators. Getting Started: The First Steps toward Online Teaching.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Introduction to Online Education Fundamentals For Administrators
Getting Started: The First Steps toward Online Teaching This course introduces potential faculty and/or administrators to online education fundamentals and is a prerequisite to both the Online Teaching Certificate and the Blended Teaching Certificate programs. Not only will you discuss the concepts but you will use the technologies to gain practical "hands-on" experience.
Face-to-Face versus Online Teaching Objective: Compare face-to-face and online teaching, including expectations, role adjustments, and course design
Expectations in the Online Environment • Participation: Learners and instructors will take an active role in creating dialog and peer interaction • Instruction: Innovative, engaging, and flexible, but based on outcomes • Presence: The perception that others are present; environment and activities are designed to promote presence • Guidelines: Clear assignment instructions, rubrics, detailed syllabus, learner contracts/agreements
Role Adjustments Online • Instructors • Online activities: communication (discussions, email, chat); evaluation (grading); technical support; changes and maintenance (“hot fixes”) • Providing learners with resources choose from or guidance for finding their own (Mandernach et al., 2009) • Facilitating vs. teaching; willing to put learners in control (ION, 2013) • Learners • More autonomous • Must share in knowledge management and creation • Critical literacy skills: information, technology, thinking
For Discussion • What are your expectations for your role as an online instructor? How do you think your role will differ from the face-to-face environment?
Online Course Design • Start with goals and objectives; choose assessments, activities, and strategies that best support the learning outcomes (ION, 2013) • Courses: Modular, interactive, engaging; accommodates various learning styles through selection of readings, assignments, and assessments • Discussions: "Planned, meaningful, prepared" (Mandernach et al., 2009); support for higher order activities that are reflective and research-based • Syllabus design: Narrative versus modular (to support cognitive load management online, use of mobile devices)
Principles of Effective Participation Objective: Apply the principles of effective participation through chat and discussion.
Chat and Discussion • "Heart" of online learning; should encourage critical thinking (ION, 2013; Mandernach et al., 2009) • "Presence“: The perception that others are present in the interaction (Short, Williams, & Christy, 1976); quality participation decreases isolation, anonymity, and polarization (Mandernach et al., 2009) • “[D]iscussion questions should not be discrete questions that have a definite answer, rely solely on opinion, or require minimal insight and investigation" (Mandernach et al., 2009)
Considerations • Three types of communication essential to the online classroom: course content related; planning; social support (Hrastinski, 2008) • Environment: Open to all; established rules ("netiquette"); guidelines for participation (operationalization) (Min, 2007) • Build presence through introductions, ice breakers • Allow space/time for informal dialogue not related to the course (Dailey-Hebert, Mandernach, & Donnelli-Sallee, 2006) • Techniques: Affinity groups, guest speakers, role playing, debate/mock trials, media, case studies, simulations (Mandernach et al., 2009)
Instructor Participation • Understanding of asynchronous facilitation techniques is essential! • Taking an active role in the discussion (versus monitoring) influences the value and effectiveness of online discussion (Mandernach et al., 2009) • Participate regularly and visibly; remain non-judgmental • Focus on helping learners increase and deepen understanding
For Discussion • Face-to-face discussions can be spontaneous and dynamic. How can you encourage a similar quality of interaction in the online environment?
Synchronous and Asynchronous Technologies Objective: Use synchronous and asynchronous technologies
Advantages • While research does not support the use of one mode over the other, each has its advantages • Synchronous: immediacy, real-time collaboration, large group interaction, presence • Asynchronous: Flexibility, time management, reflection, information processing; tools are probably more widely used
Tools • Synchronous: Chat rooms, instant messaging, video chat, Skype, Communicator, web conferencing, immersive environments, Multi-user Domains (MUDs) or Multi-user Object Oriented Environments (MOOs) (ION, 2013), conference calling, collaborative document editing such as Google Drive • Asynchronous: Listservs, RSS feeds, email, discussion boards, document sharing (Box.net, DropBox, Google Drive), blogs, wikis, portfolios • Helpful Resource: Faculty Focus. (n.d.). Synchronous and asynchronous learning tools: 15 Strategies for engaging online students using real-time chat, threaded discussions and blogs. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/free-reports/synchronous-and-asynchronous-learning-tools-strategies-for-engaging-online-students/
Best Practices • Synchronous: Have an agenda, chunk the presentation, stay on topic, manage emotions, provide summaries • Asynchronous: Organize the environment, use the features of the environment, provide summaries, monitor and guide From the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2011b). Best practices for the asynchronous and synchronous classroom. Retrieved from http://academictech.doit.wisc.edu/ideas/otr/communication/best-practices-asynch-synch-classroom
Online Management Objective: Prepare for managing online classes, workload, and resources
Productivity and Accountability • Allow additional time to plan, prepare, grade, and communicate • Some indication that online design and development is more time-intensive than face-to-face, but delivery may require less effort (Andersen & Avery, 2008) • According to Andersen and Avery (2008), instructors in online courses spend the greatest amount of time interacting with students. They also spent significantly more time evaluating work than their face-to-face counterparts.
Planning Online Instruction • Use variety in selecting activities; appeal to a wide range of learners; give choice (Dailey-Hebert, Mandernach, & Donnelli-Sallee, 2006) • Choose activities that promote critical thinking • Promote active, connected learning • Use techniques that gain attention and provide motivation
Supporting Instructors and Learners • Technical support: Just-in-time/self help; peer support (lead faculty); help desk • Promote tools and techniques for time management and organization • Prioritize prompt and substantive communication and feedback
For Discussion • What do you expect to be the biggest challenges for both instructors and learners in the online environment? What actions can you take to address those challenges?
References and Resources • Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States, 2010. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/class_differences • Andersen, K., & Avery, M. (2008). Faculty teaching time: A comparison of web-based and face-to-face graduate nursing courses. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920737/ • Dailey-Hebert, A., Mandernach, B., & Donnelli-Sallee, E. (2006). Best practices in the development and facilitation of online courses. Retrieved from http://www.park.edu/cetl/documents/OnlineDevelopmentandFacilitation.pdf • Hrastinski, S. (2008, November 4). Asynchronous & synchronous e-learning. EDUCAUSE Quarterly. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0848.pdf • ION - Illinois Online Network. (2013). Instructional strategies for online courses. Retrieved from http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/resources/tutorials/pedagogy/instructionalstrategies.asp • Mandernach, B., Forrest, K., Babutzke, J., & Manker, L. (2009). The role of instructor interactivity in promoting critical thinking in online and face-to-face classrooms. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(1). Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no1/mandernach_0309.htm • Min, S. (2007). Online vs. face-to-face deliberation: Effects on civic engagement. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4). Retrieved from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/min.html • Morris, L., Xu, H., & Finnegan, C. (2005). Roles of faculty in teaching asynchronous undergraduate courses. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(1). Retrieved from http://www.msmc.la.edu/include/learning_resources/online_course_environment/online_teaching/v9n1_faculty.pdf • Pennsylvania State University. (2013). Online instructor performance best practices and expectations. Retrieved from http://psuwcfacdev.ning.com/page/online-instructor-performance • Taylor, S. A. (2013). Getting started teaching online. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/node/225451 • University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2011a). Asynchronous vs synchronous communication. Retrieved from http://academictech.doit.wisc.edu/ideas/otr/communication/asynchronous-synchronous • University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2011b). Best practices for the asynchronous and synchronous classroom. Retrieved from http://academictech.doit.wisc.edu/ideas/otr/communication/best-practices-asynch-synch-classroom