THE CHEST – PART II PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS. Dr Sham A. Cader Department Of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology. PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION.
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Dr Sham A. Cader
Department Of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology
Versed and Valium can cause respiratoryarrest particularly if given IV push at too fast a rate.
Smoking decreases lung ciliary action, decreases production of surfactant, and increases blood pressure due to nicotine absorption.
Smoking is measured in pack-years. To calculate, take how many packs a day the person smokes, times the number of years the person has smoked
Smoke, and irritating fumes (butane, paint thinner, glue) can lead to upper respiratory irritation such as laryngitis
Stress can lead to excessive sighing or hyperventilation.
Anxiety has be linked to bronchospasm and bronchial asthma.
The anterior-posterior diameter should be less than the transverse diameter
Movement of the chest should be symmetrical
Skin should be warm and dry
No cyanosis or pallor
Respiratory rate 16 to 24 per min for adult
Flaring nostrils, intercostal retractions, tachypena, or bradypnea needs evaluation.
Crackling sounds caused by air passing through moisture in the alveoli or bronchioles. Heard in Bronchitis, Pneumonia, Pulmonary edema, CHF, Interstitial fibrosis
Rest, fluids, Tylenol, anesthetic lozenges and gargling with warm saline.