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The New Brain. By Richard Restak Presentation by Emily Warren & Holli Leug. Chapter 1- Brain Plasticity: Your Brain Changes Everyday. Originally believed that the brain became fixed in its structure and function by adolescence.

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the new brain

The New Brain

By Richard Restak

Presentation by Emily Warren & Holli Leug

chapter 1 brain plasticity your brain changes everyday
Chapter 1- Brain Plasticity: Your Brain Changes Everyday
  • Originally believed that the brain became fixed in its structure and function by adolescence.
  • Thoughts, feelings, and actions determine the health of our brain.
  • The brain can change in short intervals, even daily.
chapter 1 continued
Chapter 1- Continued
  • May not necessarily look different (as compared to an infants), but through skillful use of neuroimaging the changes can be seen.
    • Leslie G. Ungerleider of the National Institute of Health used images and sequences of finger movements over the course of a few weeks to show exactly what areas of the brain were controlling them, and over time the functional areas changed.
chapter 2 genius and superior performance are we all capable
Chapter 2- Genius and Superior Performance: Are We All Capable?
  • People with extraordinary ability use their brains differently than the rest of us.
    • Chess experts use their frontal and parietal cortices (long-term memory).
    • Chess novices used their medial temporal lobes (short-term memory).
  • There are no special inherited qualities that distinguish people with special abilities.
chapter 2 continued1
Chapter 2- Continued
  • The 10-Year Rule
    • “The highest levels of performance and achievement appear to require at least around 10 years of intense prior preparation.”
  • “Genius is about 99 percent perspiration and 1 percent inspiration.” - Thomas Edison
  • General intelligence is linked to the amoung of grey matter in the brain.
chapter 3 attention deficit the brain syndrome of our era
Chapter 3- Attention Deficit: The Brain Syndrome of Our Era
  • The technology around us can play a role in out brain plasticity (for better and worse).
  • ADD and ADHD affect many adults, in addition to children.
    • Attention Deficit Disorder
    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
chapter 3 continued
Chapter 3- Continued
  • ADD and ADHD have three main areas for diagnosis:
    • Motor Control
    • Impulsivity
    • Difficulties in organization and focus
  • Typically an inherited disorder, however, it is becoming more common to see “culturally” induced ADD and ADHD as a result of increasing demands on our attention and focus.
chapter 3 continued1
Chapter 3- Continued
  • Society is forcing people to essentially become ADD/ADHD to survive and be successful.
  • Largely influenced by technology.
    • Example- The scrolling text on the bottom of the screen during news broadcasts.
    • Example- Smart phones and their multitasking abilities.
chapter 4 more images is it destabilizing our brains
Chapter 4- More Images: Is It Destabilizing Our Brains?
  • Recent research has shown that there are harmful effects produced by images of horror and mayhem.
    • Recent research shows that it can activate sensitive areas of the brain that change their long-term responses.
    • These images essentially replay in the mind over and over.
chapter 4 continued
Chapter 4- Continued
  • All emotional responses and perceptions can be related to cortical and subcortical neurons.
    • Important in mediating between violence and aggression (personal space and territory)
  • J.L. Downer Study
    • Showed that deprivation of use of the amygdala causes an individual to lose their ability to interpret and appropriately respond to potential threat.
  • Immature brains cannot differentiate between real violence and images.
chapter 5 the happy brain the joy and music in you
Chapter 5- The Happy Brain: The Joy and Music in You
  • Humor exerts a positive effect on general functioning.
    • Decreases stress
    • Boosts immune defenses
    • Relaxes muscle tension
    • Decreases blood pressure
    • Modulates pain
  • Frontal lobe is responsible for processing laughter.
chapter 5 continued
Chapter 5- Continued
  • People with damage to their frontal lobe have difficulty laughing spontaneously, appreciating humor, and they tend to smile and laugh less.
  • Brain modifications can sometimes take unusual directions or develop in unexpected ways.
    • Non-musicians who were trained to notice subtle pitch changes required only a small amount of training to respond in ways typically only seen in professional musicians.
chapter 6 modern imaging techniques windows on the mind
Chapter 6- Modern Imaging Techniques: Windows on the Mind
  • “In essence, a person can only lie when he knows the correct answer but chooses to pretend that he doesn’t.”
  • “You have to know the truth in order to deceive.”
  • Brain Fingerprinting
    • Detects changes in the brains electrical activity, which varies depends on if something is recognized.
chapter 6 continued
Chapter 6- Continued
  • Reading Minds
    • Win or lose, the brain displays greatest activity in the medial frontal cortex.
    • Activity showed the greatest dips after loses.
    • “Losses loom greater than gains.”
  • Advances in neuroscience will allow us to clarify the role of emotions in some ethical and moral dilemmas.
chapter 7 cosmetic psychopharmacology
Chapter 7- Cosmetic Psychopharmacology
  • Became prominent in the 1990’s to treat depression.
    • Prozac
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor’s (SSRI’s)
  • “… the neuron associated with depression looks like a tree in winter: the dendrites (the receiving “antennae” of the neuron) are shortened and lacking branches.”
chapter 7 continued
Chapter 7- Continued
  • Antidepressants prevent stress-induced changes like:
    • Hippocampal volume
    • Brain metabolism
    • Cell proliferation
  • Other behavioral activities that can be treated:
    • Shyness
    • Social Phobia
chapter 8 healing the diseased brain new attempts at brain repair
Chapter 8- Healing the Diseased Brain: New Attempts at Brain Repair
  • Neuroscientists once believed brain development ceased during young adulthood, but we now know the brain can rewire its circuitry at almost any age.
  • Reconfiguring the brain-
    • After a stroke the brain undergoes a complex pattern of reorganization
chapter 8 continued
Chapter 8- Continued
  • Constraint Induced (CI) Movement Therapy
    • Strong side (arm) is constrained so that only the weak can be used
    • Goal is to reorganize brain circuits to reinstate the patient’s lost movements
    • Treatment results in a reversal of a “learned non-use”
  • Finger/Toe Stimulation
chapter 8 continued1
Chapter 8- Continued
  • Sensory Substitution
    • Brain works on whatever information it has available, i.e. deprived of sound, it will rely on sight and vice versa
    • Again, brain has to complete reorganization to accomplish this
chapter 9 the new brain
Chapter 9- The New Brain
  • Many new applications of neuroscience likely to occur in next decade
  • Advances will be based on new developments in imaging- ways of looking at or measuring the brain
    • CT Scans (Computed Tomography)
    • PET Scans (Positron Emission Tomography)
    • MEG (Magnetocephalogram)
    • fMRI (functional MRI)
    • MSI (Magnetic Source Imaging)
chapter 9 continued
Chapter 9- Continued
  • Mental operations in “real time”, i.e. measurement of what the brain processes during learning, language, emotional experiences, and thinking
  • Predicting human behavior
    • Genetics for specific cognitive abilities (intelligence, attention, and memory)
  • Brain changes over a lifetime
    • No two brains are the same, not even twins
    • Brain differs in same person during life’s developmental stages (infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age)
chapter 9 continued1
Chapter 9- Continued
  • Will functions by computers equal or beat the human brain capacity?
    • Implantation technologies to enhance brain power
    • A device already used to prevent epileptic seizures and alleviate depression
  • Neuroethics- the moral and ethical issues arising
  • from new brain-related scientific findings
  • TECHNOLOGICALLY we can do it, but
  • ETHICALLY should we do it?
relating it to business
Relating it to Business
  • So How Does This Relate?
    • Our environment is essentially making us ADD and increasing our ability to multitask.
    • Leadership needs to take advantage of the ability to focus on multiple projects at once.