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THE BLACK DEATH. References: A History of the Modern World by Palmer and Colton A History of Western Society by McKay, Hill, and Buckler The Western Perspective by Cannistraro and Reich Western Civilization by Spielvogel. THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society. Spread

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References:A History of the Modern World by Palmer and ColtonA History of Western Society by McKay, Hill, and BucklerThe Western Perspective by Cannistraro and ReichWestern Civilizationby Spielvogel

the black death from a history of western society
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • Spread
    • In October 1347, the plague came to Messina on Genoese ships docking at the island of Sicily.
  • By January 1348, the plague had reached Venice and Genoa.
  • By mid-1348, Italy, Spain, and France were infected and the plague had reached Germany and England.
the black death from a history of western society1
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • By the end of 1349, the plague had swept across most of Ireland, Scotland, the Low Countries, and Denmark.
  • By the end of 1350, almost all of Europe was infected.
the black death from a history of western society2
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • The bacillus that causes the plague is the Pasteurella pestis.
  • Pathology and Care
  • Lived in the bloodstream of an animal or, ideally, in the stomach of a flea.
  • The flea resided in the hair of a rodent, preferably the black rat.
the black death from a history of western society3
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • Black rats
    • Often traveled by ship.
  • Could survive on cargoes of grain
  • Reached the cities of Europe following voyages probably from the Crimea
the black death from a history of western society from western civilization
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society & from Western Civilization
  • Bubonic: the flea was the vector, or transmitter.
  • The plague took three forms
  • Pneumonic: the plague was passed from person to person.
  • Septicemic: very rare, but very lethal; passed by insects; death usually occurred within one day.
the black death from a history of western society4
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • Filthy, narrow, crowded streets
  • City life aided the spread of disease.
  • Sewage
  • Garbage
  • Dead animals
  • Possibly for financial reasons, houses’ upper stories were built to project over the lower stories, eliminating light and air.
the black death from a history of western society a history of the modern world
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society & A History of the Modern World
  • Extreme overcrowding was common.
    • Houses were crowded within the city walls.
  • Family members normally slept in one room, sometimes in one bed.
  • Housing construction was frequently poor and rats had no trouble entering.
the black death from a history of western society5
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • How often did the average resident use the public bathhouse?
  • Personal hygiene
  • How does poor personal hygiene combine with minor illnesses to weaken resistance to serious disease?
the black death from a history of western society6
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • If body lice is a common occurrence, will one notice a particular bite from a particular flea?
the black death from a history of western society7
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • a growth the size of a nut or an apple in the armpit, in the groin, or on the neck
  • Symptoms
  • This was the boil, or buba, that gave the disease its name.
  • If the boil was lanced and thoroughly drained, the victim might recover.
the black death from a history of western society8
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • Secondary stage: black spots caused by bleeding under the skin.
  • Finally, the victim began to cough violently and spit blood.
  • Death followed in two or three days.
the black death from a history of western society9
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • Contemporary explanations
  • Some "vicious property in the air”
  • The Jews
the black death from western civilization
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism
  • The most common example of anti-Semitism was the accusation that Jews caused the Black Death by poisoning wells
  • Jews were persecuted in Spain and especially in Germany
the black death from western civilization1
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism: One example
  • The plague killed about 16,000 in the city of Strasbourg in the Holy Roman Empire beginning in the summer of 1649.
  • The Jews were blamed for the plague due to a combination of fear and greed.
the black death from western civilization2
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism: An excerpt from “The Cremation of the Strasbourg Jews” by Jacob von Konigshofen:
  • “On Saturday . . . they burnt the Jews on a wooden platform in their cemetery.
  • “There were about two thousand people of them.
the black death from western civilization3
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism: An excerpt from “The Cremation of the Strasbourg Jews” by Jacob von Konigshofen:
  • “Those who wanted to baptise themselves were spared.
  • “[About 1,000 accepted baptism.]
  • “Many small children were taken out of the fire and baptized against the will of their fathers and mothers.
the black death from western civilization4
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism: An excerpt from “The Cremation of the Strasbourg Jews” by Jacob von Konigshofen:
  • “And everything that was owed to the Jews was canceled, and the Jews had to surrender all pledges and notes that they had taken for debts.
  • “The council, however, took the cash that the Jews possessed and divided it among the working-men proportionately.
the black death from western civilization5
THE BLACK DEATH from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism: An excerpt from “The Cremation of the Strasbourg Jews” by Jacob von Konigshofen:
  • “The money was indeed the thing that killed the Jews.
  • “If they had been poor and if the feudal lords had not been in debt to them, they would not have been burnt. . .”
the black death partly from western civilization
THE BLACK DEATH partly from Western Civilization
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Surviving Jews fled to Russia and especially to Poland where they were offered protection by the king.
  • As a direct result of the Black Death, Eastern Europe became home to large numbers of Jews.
the black death from a history of western society10
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • The infectious nature of the disease was recognized by some, but apparently only certain Muslims realized how to respond.
  • Ibu Abu Madyan
  • Ibu Abu Madyan shut in his household and allowed no one to enter or leave until the plague had passed.
  • Abu Madyan’s efforts succeeded.
the black death from a history of western society11
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • Rats carrying the fleas were largely confined to the cities.
  • The countryside was relatively safe.
  • City dwellers with money fled.
the black death from western civilization6
THE BLACK DEATHfrom Western Civilization
  • “Still others . . . maintained that no remedy against plagues was better than to leave them miles behind. Men and women without number . . . caring for nobody but themselves, abandoned the city, their houses and estates, their own flesh and blood even, and their effects, in search of a country place.”
          • from The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio
the black death from a history of western society12
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society
  • Contemporary Europe could neither explain nor cure the disease.
  • The medical literature of the day indicates that physicians could sometimes ease the pain.
the black death from a history of western society from western civilization1
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society & from Western Civilization
  • Priests and nuns often stayed with the sick until they too caught the plague.
  • Care and treatment
  • Hospitals which existed in 14th and 15th century European cities “could offer only shelter, compassion, and care for the dying.”
the black death from a history of western society13
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • Professional medicine had no theory of infection, but the basic concept was understood – on some level – by those who witnessed the spread of the disease.
  • European port cities, beginning with Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik), quarantined arriving ships to determine whether they brought the plague.
the black death from western civilization7
THE BLACK DEATHfrom Western Civilization
  • Italian cities: 50-60%
  • Northern France:
  • Mortality rates
  • Farming villages: 30%
  • Cities: 30-40%
  • England: similar to France
  • Germany: not as bad as England and France
  • Europe: 25-50% or approximately 19-38 million people
the black death from a history of western society from western civilization2
THE BLACK DEATHfrom A History of Western Society & from Western Civilization
  • Recurrences
  • 1361-1362
  • 1369
  • Every 5-6 to 10-12 years for the rest of the fourteenth-century and the fifteenth century
  • Intermittently
  • Last outbreak was 1721 in Marseilles
the black death from a history of western society14
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • The decline in population led to a labor shortage
  • Economic and social consequences.
  • Increased demand for labor
  • Higher wages
  • Increase in per capita wealth
  • Increase in the slave trade
the black death from a history of western society from western civilization3
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society & from Western Civilization
  • Heroism
  • Psychological consequences.
  • Cowardice
  • Pessimism
  • Debauchery
  • Asceticism
the black death from western civilization8
THE BLACK DEATHfrom Western Civilization
  • “Others . . . held that plenty of drinking and enjoyment, singing and free living and the gratification of the appetite in every possible way . . . was the best preventative of such a malady . . . Day and night they went from one tavern to another drinking and carousing unrestrainedly.”
        • from The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio
the black death from western civilization9
THE BLACK DEATHfrom Western Civilization
  • The flagellants
    • “men who did public penance and scourged themselves with whips of hard knotted leather with little iron spikes. Some make themselves bleed very badly . . . The object of this penance was to put a stop to the mortality.”
          • A contemporary chronicler
the black death from a history of western society15
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • Death in the literature and art of the fourteenth century
  • One motif, the Dance of Death, depicted a dancing skeleton leading away a living person.
the black death from a history of western society16
THE BLACK DEATH from A History of Western Society
  • All types of leaders and institutions had failed them
  • Survivors experienced a crisis of faith.
  • Religious and Moral
  • Political and Social
  • Medical
  • This crisis contributed to the decline of the Middle Ages.