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Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants. Chapter 13 Part 2. Chapter 12&13 summary. Review of Paleozoic vertebrates. Jawless fish Jawed fish Eventually to amphibians. Can amphibians take over the world? Dependence on water for reproduction. Amniote egg. Egg hatch as mini adult

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Presentation Transcript
review of paleozoic vertebrates
Review of Paleozoic vertebrates
  • Jawless fish
  • Jawed fish
  • Eventually to amphibians
slide4
Can amphibians take over the world?
  • Dependence on water for reproduction
amniote egg
Amniote egg
  • Egg hatch as mini adult
  • Skip larval stage
  • With amniote egg: reptiles
oldest reptile mississippian
Oldest reptile - Mississippian
  • Reptile differences: Skull, jawbone better for chewing
pennsylvanian reptiles hylonomus 30 cm long
Pennsylvanian reptilesHylonomus 30 cm long
  • Small for agility
  • Easier to keep warm/burrow
  • Easier to heat by sun
pennsylvanian reptiles
Pennsylvanian reptiles
  • Trapped in trees?
  • Made dens there?
slide10
Reptiles appear in Carboniferous
  • Permian: reptiles dominate & amphibians displaced
  • Why so successful?
  • Advanced:
    • Reproduction
    • Movement
    • Jaws/teeth
permian reptiles
Permian reptiles
  • Dominant group: Pelycosaurs (finbacks)
  • Herbivores and carnivores
dominant group pelycosaurs finbacks
Dominant group: Pelycosaurs (finbacks)
  • How can you tell herbivore vs. carnivore?
finback reptile fossil
Finback reptile fossil
  • Purpose of sail to:
  • Scare off attacker?
  • Protection?
  • Sexual display?
  • Thermal regulation?
permian reptiles14
Permian reptiles
  • Pelycosaurs extinct in Permian
  • Succeeded by therapsids
    • Mammal-like reptiles
permian therapsids
Permian therapsids
  • Small-medium animals
  • Start of mammal features
  • Fewer skull bones
  • Larger lower jaw
  • Teeth with different functions
  • More vertical legs
  • Hair?
permian therapsids16
Permian therapsids
  • Small-medium animals
  • Start of mammal features
  • Fewer skull bones
  • Larger lower jaw
  • Teeth with different functions
  • More vertical legs
  • Hair?
permian therapsids17
Permian therapsids
  • Small-medium animals
  • Start of mammal features
  • Fewer skull bones
  • Larger lower jaw
  • Teeth with different functions
  • More vertical legs
  • Hair?
permian therapsids18
Permian therapsids
  • Small-medium animals
  • Start of mammal features
  • Fewer skull bones
  • Larger lower jaw
  • Teeth with different functions
  • More vertical legs
  • Hair?
permian theraspids
Permian theraspids
  • Endothermic? (warm-blooded)
  • Maintain constant body temperature
  • Why important?
  • How to prove/disprove?
end of paleozoic
End of Paleozoic
  • 90% of reptiles were therapsids
  • 2/3 of reptiles wiped out in Permian extinction
  • Plants were less affected
two groups of plants
Two groups of plants
  • Nonvascular: mosses, liverworts, fungi need water for survival.
  • Vascular plants: tissue system to move water, nutrients (most land plants)
  • Earliest land plants: nonvascular
  • Evolved into vascular plants
earliest vascular plant spores ordovician
Earliest vascular plant spores: Ordovician
  • Nonvascular: mosses, liverworts, fungi need water for survival.
  • Vascular plants: tissue system to move water, nutrients (most land plants)
  • Earliest land plants: nonvascular
  • Evolved into vascular plants
what do plants need to develop to be vascular
What do plants need to develop to be vascular?
  • Tissue to transport water/nutrients
  • Tissue to support plant body
  • Avoid desiccation with outer wall
  • Protection from UV
  • Roots to collect water/nutrients from soil
  • Roots to anchor plant
  • Leaves for photosynthesis
which came first
Which came first?
  • Land plants or land animals?
oldest land plant silurian
Oldest land plant, Silurian
  • Simple leafless stalk with spores
  • Seedless vascular plants
  • Amphibian of plant world
early devonian landscape
Early Devonian landscape
  • Early Devonian: low-growing plants
  • Late Devonian: 30 foot tall plants
devonian ferns
Devonian ferns
  • Early Devonian: low-growing plants
  • Late Devonian: 30 foot tall plants
devonian plants
Devonian plants
  • First: seedless vascular plants
  • Seedless plants need water for reproduction
  • Next: seed plants
  • Why seeds?
slide29
Seed plants: late Devonian
  • Seedless vascular dominate Carboniferous
  • Why plants important in Carboniferous?
carboniferous swamps
Carboniferous swamps
  • 70% of coal made from seedless vascular trees
paleozoic plants
Paleozoic plants
  • By end of Permian:
    • Flowerless seed plants take over
  • Why seed plants not seedless?
  • Climate drier and warmer
carboniferous plants
Carboniferous plants
  • Glossopteris
  • Seed fern