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Dental Nomenclature

Dental Nomenclature

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Dental Nomenclature

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  1. Dental Nomenclature UNCLASSIFIED//REL TO NATO/ISAF

  2. Dental Nomenclature • In this lecture we will teach you the basic dental nomenclature and term. • Tooth and her function • Teeth eruption AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  3. THE DENTITION • Teeth are arranged in the jaws to form two dental arches. • The maxilla forms the maxillary or upper arch • the mandible forms the mandibular or lower arch AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  4. The dentition • Together, the two arches make up one dentition, or set of teeth. During a lifespan, each person normally will have two dentitions, the primary and the permanent AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  5. The Primary Dentition • The first set of teeth, the primary dentition, begins to emerge into the mouth between 6 and 8 months of age. • Teeth continue to erupt periodically, following a developmental schedule, until 20 teeth, 10 maxillary and 10 mandibular, have erupted by the age of 2½ – 3 years. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  6. The Primary Dentition • The primary teeth eventually exfoliate, or shed, and are replaced by permanent teeth. • When all the permanent teeth have erupted, by the ages of 17 through 21, the permanent dentition is complete. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  7. The permanent dentition • There are 32 permanent teeth, 16 maxillary and 16 mandibular. • Between 6 and 7 years of age, the first permanent tooth, the mandibular first molar, erupts posterior to the last primary molar. • Permanent molars do not replace or succeed primary teeth. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  8. The mixed dentition • Between the ages of 5 and 12, some primary and some permanent teeth are present in the mouth at the same time; this is referred to as a mixed dentition AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  9. THE NAMES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE TEETH • Each dentition includes several types of teeth shaped to perform specific functions. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  10. Quadrant AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  11. Types of Teeth • Incisors • Canines • Premolars • Molars AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  12. The permanent teeth AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  13. Incisors • The four front teeth and have sharp biting edges for incising, or cutting, food. The two in the middle of the arch are central incisors • Those on either side are lateral incisors. • There are four incisors in each arch. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  14. Incisors AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  15. Canines • Also called cuspids, are the corner teeth and have one pointed cusp used to hold and tear food. • There are two canines in each arch. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  16. Canines AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  17. Premolars • Also called bicuspids, are posterior teeth having two major cusps adapted to crush and tear food. • Premolars are named by their sequence in the arch from front to back as first premolar and second premolar. • There are four premolars in each arch. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  18. Premolars AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  19. Molars • Molars are broad back teeth having several cusps adapted to chew, crush, and grind food. • They are named by their sequence from the front to the back of the arch as "first molar," "second molar," and "third molar.“ • There are six molars in each arch. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  20. Upper molars AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  21. Lower molars AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  22. Mastication • Each tooth performs its individual function in the process of mastication, or chewing. • By working together, the teeth prepare food for swallowing and digestion AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  23. The Primary Teeth • The primary dentition has 20 teeth, 10 maxillary and 10 mandibular. • They are smaller but similar in shape and function to the permanent teeth. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  24. The Primary Teeth • Types of Teeth: • Incisors:two central and two lateral, four in each arch • Canines: one in each corner of the arch, two in each arch • Molars: two first molars, two second molars, four in each arch AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  25. The Primary Teeth AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  26. Eruption • Each primary tooth is eventually replaced by a permanent tooth. Note, however, that there are no primary premolars • Primary molars are succeeded by permanent premolars. • Permanent molars erupt posterior to the primary molars without replacing any primary teeth AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  27. THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE TEETH • Teeth are arranged in an upper and lower dental arch. • The anterior teeth are those in the front of the mouth and include incisors and canines. • The Posterior teeth, those in the back of the mouth, include premolars and molars. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  28. THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE TEETH AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  29. Tooth Description • To identify a tooth correctly, it is designated not only by its name and arch but also by the quadrant in which it is located. Each quadrant is specified according to the patient’s right or left side. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  30. Tooth Description AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  31. THE ERUPTION SEQUENCE • Although teeth begin to form in utero, eruptions occur at approximately 6-8 months of age. • Eruption dates vary from person to person by a few months, just as the individual growth rate varies • mandibular teeth generally precede maxillary teeth in eruption AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  32. The eruption sequence • Primary teeth • By the age of 2 ½ – 3 years, all primary teeth have erupted; at about 6 years, the permanent teeth start to erupt. CFHSTC Clin Perio Crse 0013

  33. The eruption sequence AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  34. Attrition • Continual use of the teeth throughout life can cause a slight wearing away of the biting and/or chewing surfaces and, hence, a decrease in the height of the tooth. This wearing away is called attrition. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  35. bruxism • Grinding of the teeth (bruxism) also causes attrition. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  36. Abrasion • Abrasion of the tooth surfaces can be caused by mechanical wear such as continual biting on an object or brushing too vigorously. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  37. SUMMARY • During a person's lifespan there will be two sets of teeth. The first set, the primary or deciduous dentition, consists of 20 teeth. • It eventually exfoliates and is replaced by the permanent dentition, which has 32 teeth. AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  38. SUMMARY • Each dentition has several types of teeth shaped to perform specific functions; they work in conjunction with one another to prepare the food for digestion AFAMS Dental Advisor Team

  39. سوالات؟ Question? UNCLASSIFIED//REL TO NATO/ISAF