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Cell Biology Standards: 1 a, c, e, f, g. TWO TYPES OF CELLS. Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells. Single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound structures Example: bacteria. Eukaryote.

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two types of cells

Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic Cells

Single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound structures

Example: bacteria


An organism made up of cells that have a nucleus, membrane-bound, & non membrane-bound structures

One-celled or multicellular organisms (more than one cell)

Examples: plant & animal cells.

cell membrane
Cell Membrane

The cell’s outer boundary that acts as a barrier between the cell & its environment

Found in all cells

Made of a phospholipid bilayer.

Surrounds contents within cell.

cell wall
Cell Wall

Structure that surrounds the cell membrane

Provides support & structure for cell

Found in prokaryotes & plant cells

Cytosol: Fluid within cell in which the organelles are sustained in.

Cytoplasm:Everything within the cell, between the membrane & nucleus


Membrane-bound & non- membrane bound structure within a cell

Known as “little organ”

Each plays a specific function for cell survival.


In eukaryotic cells, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s DNA (hereditary info)

Control center of cell

Double membrane

Nuclear pores on outside

Nucleolus inside makes ribosome parts


A non membrane-bound organelle that synthesizes proteins

Found on rough endoplasmic reticulum

Also floating freely within the cell’s cytosol.

Found in prokaryotes & eukaryotes.

endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

System of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell(highway of the cell)

Membrane is connected to outer membrane of nuclear envelope

2 Types: Rough ER & Smooth ER

rough endoplasmic reticulum rer
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that is covered in ribosomes

Synthesizes proteins

Packs them in vesicles (sacs) & sends them to Golgi apparatus.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum ser
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that does NOT contain ribosomes

Makes & stores lipids

Breaks down toxic substances

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

Flattened system of membrane-bound sacs that modifies & packages proteins from the RER

Packaged into vesicles & sends them where they are needed.


Membrane-bound sac that contains digestive enzymes that break down worn out organelles, food particles, viruses, & bacteria.

Known as the garbage disposal


Membrane-bound sac that temporarily stores food, enzymes, waste, water, & other materials.

Large in plant cells & much smaller in animal cells.


Organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to produce ATP in eukaryotic cells

Double membrane

Has its own DNA

Uses free ribosomes in the cytoplasm to make its proteins.

Cellular Respiration

Process by which mitochondria break down organic compounds (food) to produce ATP (energy).

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY


Green organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide & water (photosynthesis)

In plant cells

Double membrane

Has own DNA


Sugar (glucose)

6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight C6H12O6+ 6O2 + ATP


Process plants use to trap the sun’s energy to make their own food, carbohydrates.

Happens in chloroplasts in leaves

what does it take to be alive
What does it take to be alive?
  • All living things are made of:
    • Cells
    • Grow & Reproduce
    • Guided by information stored in DNA
    • Are plant, animal, & bacterial cells living?

Piece of nucleic acid contained in a protein coat.

Does not have genetic material

Cannot reproduce on its own

Does not grow

virus cont
Virus cont’

Reproduces by infecting cells

Uses cell’s ribosomes, ATP, & enzymes to reproduce

Assembled into full size within a cell

Variety of shapes

No cytosol, organelles, or metabolic processes

Huge impact on life within plant, animal, & bacteria cells.