Cell Biology Standards: 1 a, c, e, f, g. TWO TYPES OF CELLS. Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells. Single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound structures Example: bacteria. Eukaryote.
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An organism made up of cells that have a nucleus, membrane-bound, & non membrane-bound structures
One-celled or multicellular organisms (more than one cell)
Examples: plant & animal cells.
The cell’s outer boundary that acts as a barrier between the cell & its environment
Found in all cells
Made of a phospholipid bilayer.
Surrounds contents within cell.
Structure that surrounds the cell membrane
Provides support & structure for cell
Found in prokaryotes & plant cells
Cytoplasm:Everything within the cell, between the membrane & nucleus
Membrane-bound & non- membrane bound structure within a cell
Known as “little organ”
Each plays a specific function for cell survival.
In eukaryotic cells, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s DNA (hereditary info)
Control center of cell
Nuclear pores on outside
Nucleolus inside makes ribosome parts
A non membrane-bound organelle that synthesizes proteins
Found on rough endoplasmic reticulum
Also floating freely within the cell’s cytosol.
Found in prokaryotes & eukaryotes.
System of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell(highway of the cell)
Membrane is connected to outer membrane of nuclear envelope
2 Types: Rough ER & Smooth ER
Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that is covered in ribosomes
Packs them in vesicles (sacs) & sends them to Golgi apparatus.
Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that does NOT contain ribosomes
Makes & stores lipids
Breaks down toxic substances
Flattened system of membrane-bound sacs that modifies & packages proteins from the RER
Packaged into vesicles & sends them where they are needed.
Membrane-bound sac that contains digestive enzymes that break down worn out organelles, food particles, viruses, & bacteria.
Known as the garbage disposal
Membrane-bound sac that temporarily stores food, enzymes, waste, water, & other materials.
Large in plant cells & much smaller in animal cells.
Organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to produce ATP in eukaryotic cells
Has its own DNA
Uses free ribosomes in the cytoplasm to make its proteins.
Process by which mitochondria break down organic compounds (food) to produce ATP (energy).
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
Green organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide & water (photosynthesis)
In plant cells
Has own DNA
6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight C6H12O6+ 6O2 + ATP
Process plants use to trap the sun’s energy to make their own food, carbohydrates.
Happens in chloroplasts in leaves
Piece of nucleic acid contained in a protein coat.
Does not have genetic material
Cannot reproduce on its own
Does not grow
Reproduces by infecting cells
Uses cell’s ribosomes, ATP, & enzymes to reproduce
Assembled into full size within a cell
Variety of shapes
No cytosol, organelles, or metabolic processes
Huge impact on life within plant, animal, & bacteria cells.