TWO TYPES OF CELLS Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound structures Example: bacteria
Eukaryote An organism made up of cells that have a nucleus, membrane-bound, & non membrane-bound structures One-celled or multicellular organisms (more than one cell) Examples: plant & animal cells.
Cell Membrane The cell’s outer boundary that acts as a barrier between the cell & its environment Found in all cells Made of a phospholipid bilayer. Surrounds contents within cell.
Cell Wall Structure that surrounds the cell membrane Provides support & structure for cell Found in prokaryotes & plant cells
Cytosol: Fluid within cell in which the organelles are sustained in. Cytoplasm:Everything within the cell, between the membrane & nucleus
Organelle Membrane-bound & non- membrane bound structure within a cell Known as “little organ” Each plays a specific function for cell survival.
Nucleus In eukaryotic cells, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s DNA (hereditary info) Control center of cell Double membrane Nuclear pores on outside Nucleolus inside makes ribosome parts
Ribosome A non membrane-bound organelle that synthesizes proteins Found on rough endoplasmic reticulum Also floating freely within the cell’s cytosol. Found in prokaryotes & eukaryotes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) System of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell(highway of the cell) Membrane is connected to outer membrane of nuclear envelope 2 Types: Rough ER & Smooth ER
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that is covered in ribosomes Synthesizes proteins Packs them in vesicles (sacs) & sends them to Golgi apparatus.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Membrane-bound organelle with many folded layers that does NOT contain ribosomes Makes & stores lipids Breaks down toxic substances
Golgi Apparatus Flattened system of membrane-bound sacs that modifies & packages proteins from the RER Packaged into vesicles & sends them where they are needed.
Lysosome Membrane-bound sac that contains digestive enzymes that break down worn out organelles, food particles, viruses, & bacteria. Known as the garbage disposal
Vacuole Membrane-bound sac that temporarily stores food, enzymes, waste, water, & other materials. Large in plant cells & much smaller in animal cells.
Mitochondrion Organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to produce ATP in eukaryotic cells Double membrane Has its own DNA Uses free ribosomes in the cytoplasm to make its proteins.
Cellular Respiration Process by which mitochondria break down organic compounds (food) to produce ATP (energy). C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
Chloroplast Green organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide & water (photosynthesis) In plant cells Double membrane Has own DNA
Sugar (glucose) 6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight C6H12O6+ 6O2 + ATP Photosynthesis Process plants use to trap the sun’s energy to make their own food, carbohydrates. Happens in chloroplasts in leaves
What does it take to be alive? • All living things are made of: • Cells • Grow & Reproduce • Guided by information stored in DNA • Are plant, animal, & bacterial cells living?
Virus Piece of nucleic acid contained in a protein coat. Does not have genetic material Cannot reproduce on its own Does not grow
Virus cont’ Reproduces by infecting cells Uses cell’s ribosomes, ATP, & enzymes to reproduce Assembled into full size within a cell Variety of shapes No cytosol, organelles, or metabolic processes Huge impact on life within plant, animal, & bacteria cells.