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Physical-Technical Institute of National Academy of Sciences Belarus, Minsk. Activity lines :. http :// www . phti . belhost . by. Е- mail: [email protected] Tel/fax: (+375-17-263-76-93). Founded - 1931 Personnel - 3 70 Laboratories- 3 0. 1. New materials for machine building.

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Activity lines

Physical-Technical Institute of National Academy of SciencesBelarus, Minsk

Activity lines:

Е-mail:[email protected]


Founded - 1931

Personnel- 370

Laboratories- 30

1. New materials for machine building

2. Newtechnologies for thermal anddeformation processing of materials

Physical-Technical Institute ofNational Academy of Sciences, Belarus, Minsk

Presents one

of the investigation


Deformed irons make up a new class of materials

Physical-Technical Institute ofNational Academy of Sciences, Belarus, Minsk

«Deformed ironsmake up a new class of materials»

A. I. Pokrovsky

(Example of unusual action ontraditionalmaterial)

Iron classical approach
Iron,classical approach:

  • Excellent casting material

  • Hardly deformable

  • Material only for non-critical items

New view oniron:

  • Deformed iron enters the class ofmaterials of high quality

  • Has superior properties

    3. Its area of applications is wider

Iron benefits as compared to steel

  • Higher thermal conductivity results in rapid heat sink(cylinder sleeves, guide valve sleeves)

  • Antifriction properties(camshafts, crank shafts, piston rings)

  • Quicker damping of vibrations and sounds(valve pushers)

  • Lighter by 10% (casings, pallets)

Drawbacks of iron:

  • Low mechanical properties

  • Casting defectsdegrading the properties

Traditional means of increasing mechanical properties of iron
Traditional means of increasing mechanicalproperties of iron:

  • Alloying

  • Modifying

  • Thermal treatment

    Quality of a casting,


    Problemsdo not vanish

Advantages of deformation processing
Advantages of deformation processing :

3. Accuracy of shaping

2.Increase of strength


1.Guaranteed quality of metal

Why we turn to deformation of iron

Physical-TechnicalInstitute of NationalAcademy of Sciences, Belarus, Minsk

Why we turn to deformation of iron :

  • Casting defects such as pores and cavities are avoided

  • Mechanical properties are enhanced up to the level of alloyed steel

    (strength is 1200 MPa, elongation 15%)

  • Antifrictioncharacteristics are increased by a factor of 1.5

Control of graphite shape traditional approach
Control of graphite shapeTraditional approach:

Change of graphite shape

from branchy to compact

and spherical ones

Control of graphite shape on deforming
Control of graphite shape on deforming

And vice versa,

from spherical

shape to fibers

We tested the following classes of irons
Wetested thefollowing classes of irons :

Gray iron

Mottled iron

Malleable iron

High-strength iron

And have foundthe most ADVANTAGEOUS ONES

There are 5 groups of know how

Conditions of iron deforming

There are 5 groups of «know-how» :

  • Alloying diagrams

  • Preliminary thermal treatment forimprovement of deformability

  • Design of press-forging tool

  • Temperature-forceparameters of deforming

  • Finishing thermal treatment

Example of deliberate selection of parameters for iron deforming
Example of deliberate selectionof parameters for iron deforming

Part:body of drill chuck

Press forging from a solid billetFOR ONE STROKE

Example of violating the iron deforming conditions
Example ofviolating the irondeforming conditions

Part: Cylinder of jack plungerfor MAZ truck

Spoiled product


temperature is


High-quality semi-finished product



Schematic diagram of iron deforming
Schematic diagramof iron deforming

1 – Iron billetheated tohigh temperature

2 – Body of press tool

3 – Intermediate medium

4 - Punch

5 – Die

6 - Guide bush

Making the samples for investigations
Making the samples forinvestigations


Longitudinal samples:

Transverse samples:



Wearing weight loss during dry friction, deformed condition: (Decrease by a factor of 1.5 as compared that in casting condition)

In order of decreasing

wear resistance:

1. Mottled iron, (MtI)

2. High-strength iron, (HSI)

3. Malleable iron, (MI)

4. Gray iron, (GI)

Significant feature of deformation is anisotropy of structure and properties
Significant feature of deformation isanisotropy ofstructure and properties





Anisotropy of wear during dry friction
Anisotropy ofwear duringdry friction

  • The selection is made

  • of optimum relationships between:

  • Deformation

  • parameters

  • Microstructures

  • Friction directions



Transverse sample

Dry friction coefficient of friction can be decreased by a factor of 2 5
DryFriction: Coefficient offriction can be decreased by a factor of 2.5





Probable factors that cause improvement of deformed iron characteristics
Probable factors that causeimprovement of deformed ironcharacteristics:

  • Refinement of austenite grain

  • Change in pearlite morphology

  • Change in graphite morphology

  • Origination of new graphite


1 refinement of austenite grain
1. Refinement of austenite grain

Grain number 3-4

Grain number 8-9

2 changes in pearlite morphology
2. Changes in pearlite morphology

х 10000

х 10000

х 15000

3 changes in graphite morphology
3. Changes in graphite morphology

4 formation of new graphite inclusions
4. Formation ofnewgraphiteinclusions

Industrial testing of deformed iron

Physical-TechnicalInstitute of NationalAcademy of Sciences, Belarus,Minsk

Industrial testing ofdeformed iron

Various parts have been offeredbut the greatest interest has been shown in

2 lines

(that will be discussed below):

High quality billets of piston and sealing rings made from deformed iron

Physical-TechnicalInstitute of NationalAcademy of Sciences, Belarus,Minsk

High-quality billets ofpistonandsealing ringsmade fromdeformed iron

  • Their mechanical properties

  • are 2 times higher than those of cast rings

  • Any failures are absent

  • 7-fold decrease of lubricant bleeding

  • No wear increase of mating part

  • Stable and one and the same quality throughout the whole height

High quality billets of gears made from deformed iron

Physical-TechnicalInstitute of NationalAcademy of Sciences, Belarus,Minsk

High-quality billets ofgears made fromdeformed iron

  • Strength is at the level ofalloyed steel

  • Noise in trucks is lower by 3 to 4 db

  • Weight of gears is lower by 9 % (the economy for one set is 700 g)

Disadvantages of technology
Disadvantagesof technology

  • High power requirements.A billet is to be heated.

  • Some time is required for designing, fabricating andadjustment of press-forging tool.

  • Costly press tool.

  • Economically sound are:

    Both mass production from 50 thousand pc per year (e. g., gears for MAZ) and pieceproduction

    (e. g.,piston rings «Formula-1»).

Present day investigation problems
Present-day investigationproblems:

1. Technological directional thrust is ahead of fundamental knowledge.2. The factors that cause iron hardeningare still not completely cleared up.3. The role played by structure factorsin hardening is ambiguous.

We are in search of potential partners for
We are in search of potential partners for:

  • Performing joint scientific investigations

  • Cooperation in delivering billets made from deformed iron.

From the scientific viewpoint we are interested in
From the scientific viewpoint weare interested in:

  • Physical factors and mechanisms responsible for iron hardening during hot deformation

  • Computer simulation of iron hardening processes;

  • Tribotechnical tests

  • Investigation of iron physical characteristics

  • Construction of mathematical models of structure formation

  • Investigation of fine structure (dislocations and point defects).

From the practical viewpoint we are interested in
From the practical viewpoint we are interested in:

  • Widening the area of deformed iron use as an effective competitive alternative to steel roll stock for manufacturing automotive and machine-building parts

  • Joint realization of our technological developments during production of items from deformed iron with improved characteristics

  • We are now prepared to produce rods for investigations as well as gear and sealing ring billets of various typical sizes


  • Physical-Technical Institute of National Academyof Sciences of Belarus

  • 10 Kuprevich St., Minsk, 220141, Belarus

  • Artur I. Pokrovsky, Cand. Tech. Sci.,

    Leading Scientific Worker

  • Tel.: +10375-29-663-58-38

  • Е-mail: [email protected]

Thank you

for attention!