Objectives • Explain how the Church shaped medieval life. • Analyze how the power of the Church grew during the Middle Ages and how reformers worked for change in the Church. • Describe the situation of Jews in Medieval Europe
The Importance of the Church • Priests administered sacraments, offered assistance to poor and uneducated • Social center of people’s lives • Salvation major aspect of daily life • Relics/Pilgrimages • Tithe and taxation led to rise of Cathedrals
Canon Law • Excommunication • Interdict • Benedictine • Papal Supremacy • A. Leader of a monastery • B. Authority over all secular rulers, including kings • C. Could not receive sacraments or even a Christian burial, shut off from the Church community • D. Style of architecture • E. Rules which governed monastic life • F. Began an order which preached poverty , humility and love of God, taught from his own examples of good works • G. Wandering musicians • H. Sacred rites of the Church • I. An order which excludes an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving sacraments
Cathedrals • Romanesque Style-round arches and a heavy roof. Small windows=little light.
Gothic Style • Developed in early 1100’s. • Tall, vaulted ceilings. Large windows=sunlight • Flying buttresses developed to build higher • Between 1170-1270 over 500 Gothic churches built. • What does this say about the economy and piety of the times?
Monasteries and Convents • Monks and Nuns • Devoted their lives to God and service to others • Health and education • Missionaries • Academics of the time
Benedictine Rule • 530 – Benedict organized monastery at Monte Cassino • Day based upon prayer and hard work • Three Vows • Obedience to the Abbot or Abbess • Poverty • Chastity (pureness)
Church’s Role in Society • Pope was the spiritual leader • Papal supremacy • Authority over all secular rulers, including kings and emperors • Own territories • Papal States
Power • Canon Law – based on religious teachings, governed many aspects of life, including wills, marriages, and morals • Disobey? • Excommunication • Interdict • Excluded an entire town/region/kingdom from receiving sacraments
Corruption and Reform • As power grew discipline weakened • Wealth and positions of power began to corrupt the intentions of the Church
Reform • Abbot Berno’s Monastery in Cluny • Monastic Movement and Pope Gregory VII (1073) • Church alone chose officials (ended Lay Investiture) • Outlawed marriage for priests • Prohibited simony
St. Francis of Assisi • Emergence of Friars example of reform and restored piety. • Founded the Franciscans • Gave up a wealthy life to preach the good word • St. Dominic and the Dominicans
Jews in Medieval Europe • Jewish communities all across Europe • Jews flourished in Spain Why? • Any illness or famine, Christians often blamed Jews • Anti-Semitism – Prejudice against the Jews