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Household Economy, Household Finance, Micro Finance & Gender AnalysisThalia Kidder Oxfam GB 2002
A. MicroCredit, MicroEnterprise & Gender • B. What do Microenterpreneurs need? • C. MF’s contribution to poverty reduction – vulnerability & consumption smoothing • D. Household Economies & Household Finance • E. Training tools on gendered h’hold finance
A. MicroCredit, MicroEnterprise & Gender Perspective • Target women with loans • Reduce barriers • a) collateral • b) Training • c) Logistics • d) Control • Institutional systems
B. Let’s question the assumptions… Credit… for production/business… for women? • What does a woman microenterpreneur need? • Are all women microenterpreneurs? • A focus on women is gender analysis? • How do MF services reduce poverty? • What financial services do households need? Do women need? • How do we have an impact on gender relations and roles…. And on men?
MicroCredit, MicroEnterprise & Gender Perspective • Why are women in certain sectors or activities (low returns, vulnerable)? Diversification and control in markets • Are MICRO enterprises viable? Why do women work alone? Training on economic organisation…
Sustainable Economic Projects:what resources are needed? Financial Services: Credit, Insurance, Reserves, Transfers Assets, TIME & Labor BAKERY Skills Marketing Efficient Organizational Structure
C. Income-Poverty Reduction: What matters? (1) • Level of Income Income Promotion Strategies • (in)Stability of Income • (un)Certainty of Income • Income Smoothing and • Consumption Smoothing Strategies
Income-Poverty Reduction: what matters? (2) • Income Smoothing Strategies: • Diversify income sources • Protect against external shocks • Adapt products/services to markets • Increase flexibility of labor supply / skills • Consumption Smoothing Strategies: • Manage money to meet daily/weekly expenses throughout the year & life cycle • Provide mechanisms to cover expected large expenses and unpredictable events & losses.
(3) Consumption smoothing: the minimum acceptable consumption level
(6)Consumption smoothing: the minimum acceptable consumption level
(7)Income &Consumption Smoothing & the unrecognized potential of MF: WHY? • The threat of falling into poverty can be as constraining and disempowering as the impact of occasional deprivation (Sen) • The poor tend to value financial services that address the risk-coping motive, the better-off can afford those that generate income and accumulate assets (Zeller) • Women value consumption smoothing mechanisms because of vulnerabilities specific to their life cycles and gender roles - due to marriage, births, childcare, health needs, education needs, old age, abandonment, separation and violence against women.
(8)Income &Consumption Smoothing & the unrecognized potential of MF: HOW? • Identify common large expenses, • (idiosyncratic) risks, threats & ‘bad times’ • Look at the ‘financial landscape’ - analyze how people currently cope …borrowing, saving... • Identify what ‘doesn’t work well’ for people • Figure out in what areas MFI products and services might do better… • Savings for births, school expenses, marriages • life & accident insurance, health care mechanisms • emergency loans, reserves against natural disasters
D. What do Financial Services Do? (I) from one place... 1. They function to transfer money ...to another.
...into cash (pawns and mortgages) 3.They permit building and accessing large sums of money 2.They function to convert the value of assets ... through savings, credit and insurance.
(a) Savings - • give up a portion of current income to accumulate a lump sum in the future • amounts and periods are flexible requires discipline and security Time line…….
(b) Insurance - small payments out of current income relatively large sum of money, but... accessible only in case of certain events ??? Time line…….
(c ) Credit/Loans - • immediate access to large sum • the payments and periods are fixed • interest paid for the right to spend now and pay later commitment to give up part of future income to repay loan +% Time line…….
(ii) For what do we need large sums of cash? 1. Economic projects • Inputs • Working Capital • Equipment and tools • Transportation • Marketing
2. Investments for Care of People • Health care, illness • Births • School expenses • Housing Repairs • Stoves • Plumbing - sanitation • Washing Facilities • Adult Education • Backyard gardens, animals
3. Cultural and community expenses • Funerals • Festivals • Religious Ceremonies • Weddings • Travel
4.Consumer goods • Radios • Furniture • Electronics • Clothing
(iii) How are these sums accumulated and accessed? For Economic Projects....? Care: Health, education and housing....? Cultural events....? Consumer goods....?
Who (in the family) is responsible for these expenses? Women? Parents? Men? Youngpeople? Other relatives?
The Household & the Economy Question 1: What goods and services do households use - need - depend on for their welfare / well being? Clothing - washing and ironing Housing - annual roof repair! Sanitation (outhouse, bathing area) Education - helping with schoolwork Food…….
The Household & the Economy Question 2: IDENTIFYING SOURCES Where do these come from? How are these goods and services provided? Purchased in the cash market Natural Resources - the environment The State Exchange, barter, social/family networks (unpaid) Goods Household work (unpaid) Services Hire - pay someone for services
The Household & the Economy Question 3: DOING THE EXERCISE Where do these come from? How are these goods and services provided? social/family networks H’hold work Hire others Buy Natural Resources State List: good 1 2 3 service 1 2
The Household & the Economy Question 3: VARIATION - highlight most important sources Where do these come from? How are these goods and services provided? social/family networks H’hold work Hire others Buy Natural Resources State List: good 1 2 3 service 1 2
The Household & the Economy Question 4: GENDER ANALYSIS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE for providing these goods and services? social/family networks H’hold work Hire others Buy Natural Resources State List: good 1 2 3 service 1 2 W M M M W W M W W M W M W W W
The Household & the Economy: The theory behind policy and programmes: How does a household’s welfare improve? Unpaidhousehold work: production / subsistence agr. (cash)Market: goods & services Household - reproductive or ‘caring’ work Household the State (health education, social security) social networks community work barter Natural resources