Lecture 05: Database Programming (JDBC) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lecture 05: Database Programming (JDBC)

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  1. Lecture 05: Database Programming (JDBC)

  2. Outline • JDBC overview • JDBC API Reading:Chapter 10.5 Pointbase Developer Manual

  3. Embedded SQL • Direct SQL (= ad-hoc SQL) is rarely used • In practice: SQL is embedded in some application code • user interaction, devices, programming logic • SQL code is enbedded using special syntax into a host language

  4. JDBC (Java DB Connectivity) Java application { ... "SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE" ... } DBMS

  5. Java application JDBC-API JDBC- Driver manager Native Protocol driver JDBC- Net-driver JDBC-ODBC bridge Native API-driver DB- Middleware ODBC Client library Client library JDBC Drivers

  6. Running a JDBC Application Phase Task Relevant java.sql classes Load driver Create connection DriverManager Connection Initialisation Statement ResultSet etc. Generate SQL statements Process result data Processing Terminate connection Release data structures Connection Statement etc. Termination

  7. A Simple JDBC application InitialContext ic = new InitialContext(); DataSource ds = (DataSource) ic.lookup("java:comp/env/jdbc/aberer"; ); out.println("db found"); connection = ds.getConnection(); out.println("connection established"); Statement stmt = con.Statement („SELECT * FROM data WHERE date = '01-01-04' “); ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery(); while (rset.next()) {...} stmt.close(); con.close(); loadDriver getConnection createStatement execute(SQL) Result handling no Last execution ? yes closeStatment closeConnection

  8. Loading of Driver • Creates an instance of the driver • Registers driver in the driver manager • Explicit loadingString l_driver = "com.pointbase.jdbc.jdbcUniversalDriver";Class.forName(l_driver).newInstance(); • Several drivers can be loaded and registered

  9. Addressing Database • A connection is a session with one database • Databases are addressed using a URL of the form "jdbc:<subprotocol>:<subname>" • Examples"jdbc:pointbase:embedded:sample""jdbc:pointbase:server://<server ip address>/sample"

  10. Connecting to Database • Connection is establishedconn = DriverManager.getConnection(URL,USERID,PWD); • Connection is closedcon.close();

  11. Implicit Driver Loading • Create DataSource objectjdbcDataSource ds = new jdbcDataSource();ds.setDatabaseName(l_URL);ds.setUser(l_UID);ds.setPassword(l_PWD);ds.setCreateDatabase(true); • Establish connection with the database and return a Connection objectconn = ds.getConnection();

  12. Simple SQL Statements • Statement object for invocationstmt = conn.createStatement();ResultSet rset= stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT address,script,type FROM worklist"); • ResultSet object for result processing

  13. Impedance Mismatch • Example: SQL in Java: • Java uses int, char[..], objects, etc • SQL uses tables • Impedance mismatch = incompatible types • Why not use only one language? • SQL cannot do everything that the host language can do • Solution: use cursors

  14. c3 c4 c1 c2 Using Cursors • Access to tuples • ResultSet object manages a cursor for tuple access • Example Statement stmt=con.createStatement(); ResultSet rset=stmt.executeQuery (“SELECT …”);while (rset.next()) { …} rset.close();

  15. c3 c4 c1 c2 Accessing Attributes (Columns) • Access to columns of a tuple • Using column index or column name • Examplewhile (rset.next()) {String address = rset.getString(1);String type = rset.getString(“type”);String script = rset.getString( rset.findColumn(“script”)); ... }

  16. More on Cursors • Cursors can also modify a relationrset.updateString("script", "ebay"); • The cursor can be a scrolling one: can go forward, backwardfirst(), last(), next(), previous() • We can determine the order in which the cursor will get tuples by the ORDER BY clause in the SQL query

  17. Dynamic JDBC Statements • Variables within SQL statement • Precompiled once, multiple executions • PreparedStatement for invocationPreparedStatement stmt = con.prepareStatement ( "SELECT * FROM data WHERE date = ?"); stmt.setDate ('01-01-04', j_date); ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery();

  18. SQL Data Types • For passing parameters to prepared statements specific SQL data types are needed • Examplejava.util.Date jd = new java.util.Date();java.sql.Date j_date = new java.sql.Date(jd.getTime());

  19. Update Statements • Updates have no result setint result = stmt.executeUpdate("delete from worklist"); • Return value of executeUpdate • DDL-statement: always 0 • DML-statement: number of tuples

  20. Error Handling • Each SQL statement can generate errors • Thus each SQL method should be put into a try-block • Exceptions are reported through exceptions of class SQLException

  21. Example Import java.sql.*;public class JdbcDemo {public static void main(String[] args) { try {Class. forName(com.pointbase.jdbc.jdbcUniversalDriver); } catch (ClassNotFoundException exc) {System.out.println(exc.getMessage());} try {Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(“jdbc:jdbc:demo",”tux”,”penguin”);Statement stmt = con.createStatement();ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(“SELECT * FROM data”);while (rs.next()) {… process result tuples …}} catch (SQLException exc) {System.out.println(“SQLException: “ + exc.getMessage());} } }

  22. Metadata • Metadata allows to develop schema independent applications for databases • Generic output methods • Type dependent applications • Two types of metadata are accessible • on result sets • on the database

  23. ResultSet Metadata • java.sql.ResultSetMetaData describes the structure of a result set object • Information about a ResultSet object • Names, types and access properties of columns

  24. Database Metadata • java.sql.DatabaseMetaData provides information about the database (schema etc.) • Information about the database • Name of database • Version of database • List of all tables • List of supported SQL types • Support of transactions

  25. Example ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery(“SELECT * FROM data”); ResultSetMetaData rsmeta = rset.getMetaData(); int numCols = rsmeta.getColumnCount(); for (int i=1; i<=numCols; i++) { int ct = rsmeta.getColumnType(i); String cn = rsmeta.getColumnName(i); String ctn = rsmeta.getColumnTypeName(i); System.out.println(“Column #” + i + “: “ + cn + “ of type “ + ctn + “ (JDBC type: “ + ct + “)”);}