Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites
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Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites. Cloud types identified by meteorological satellite and cloud forms observed from ground. Cloud type identified. Symbols used. Level. Cloud forms observed from ground. Symbol. High level cloud. Ci. High. Cirrus. Ci.

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Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites
Cloud type identificationby meteorological satellites


Cloud types identified by meteorological satellite and cloud forms observed from ground
Cloud types identified by meteorological satellite and cloud forms observed from ground

Cloud type identified

Symbols used

Level

Cloud forms observed

from ground

Symbol

High level cloud

Ci

High

Cirrus

Ci

Middle level cloud

Cm

Cirrocumulus

Cc

Stratocumulus

Sc

Cirrostratus

Cs

Stratus/fog

St

Middle

Altocumulus

Ac

Cumulus

Cu

Altostratus

As

Cumulus congestus

Cg

Nimbostratus

Ns

Cumulonimbus

Cb

Low

Stratocumulus

Sc

Stratus

St

Cumulus

Cu

Cumulonimbus

Cb


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types from satellite>Cloud area of Ci only cloud forms observed from ground

Infrared image

Visible image

Both images taken at 0900 JST, July 9, 1984 (An arrow points at the vicinity of Tottori City, Tottori Prefecture).

<Cloud forms observed from ground> (Ci and Cs) CL=0 CM=3 CH=5

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Tottori City,Tottori Prefecture) at 0801 JST, July 9, 1984 .


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types observed from satellite> Cloud area of Ci and Cm superposed

Infrared image

Visible image

Both images taken at 1200 JST, September 22, 1978. (A circle Indicates the vicinity of Tottori City, Tottori Prefecture.)

<Cloud form observed from ground > Translucent altocumulus (Ac)

CL=0 CM=3 CH=0

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Tottori City,Tottori Prefecture) at 1111 JST, September 22, 1978.


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types observed from satellite> Cloud area of coexisting Cu and Sc

Infrared image taken at 1800 JST, August 19, 1983. (Circle indicating the vicinity of Kiyose City, Tokyo.)

<Cloud forms observed from ground > (Cu and Ac)CL=2 CM=4 CH=0

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Kiyose City, Tokyo) at 1740 JST, August 19, 1983.


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types observed from satellite> coexisting Cu and Sc

Cloud area of Ci only

<Cloud forms observed from ground> (Ac)

CL=0 CM=5 CH=0

Infrared image taken at 1800 JST, September 6, 1981. (An arrow points at Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture.)

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture.) at 1710 JST, September 6,1981.


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types observed from satellite> Cloud area of Sc only coexisting Cu and Sc

Infrared image

Visible image

Both images taken at 1200 JST,November 12,1984 (A circle indicates the vicinity of Tokyo).

< Cloud forms observed from ground> (Sc) CL=5 CM=/ CH=/

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo) in November 12,1984.


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud types observed from satellite> Cloud area of coexisting Cb ,Cg and Cu

Infrared image taken at 1800 JST,August 10, 1985. (A ×mark indicates the vicinity of Kiyose City Tokyo)

<Cloud forms observed from ground> Capillary cumulonimbus cloud

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground (Kiyose City, Tokyo) at 1810 JST, August 10,1985.


Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

<Cloud forms observed from ground> Cumulus (Cu) CL=2 CM=X CH=X

<Cloud types observed from satellite>

Cloud area of coexisting Cu and Cg

Infrared image

Visible image

Photograph of clouds taken from the ground

Both images taken in December 19,1994 (arrow pointing at Ohshima Motomachi, Tokyo)


Features of cloud type identification by satellites
Features of cloud type identification by satellites CH=X

  • vs. Surface Observation

  • Views cloud tops from the universe

    • ( 36,000km above Equator)

  • Coarse Resolution

    • (GMS-5 ; 1.25km in VIS , 5km in IR )

  • Detailed classification impossible.

  • Basically different from Surface observation

    • From Satellite : “cloud types”,

    • From Surface : “cloud forms”.


  • Classification of cloud types

    Cloud type CH=X

    Classification

    High level cloud

    Ci

    Stratiform clouds

    High level clouds

    Middle level cloud

    Cm

    Middle level clouds

    Stratus/fog

    St

    Low level clouds

    Stratocumulus

    Sc

    

    Cumulus

    Cu

    Convective clouds

    Cumulus congestus

    Cg

    

    Cumulonimbus

    Cb

    Classification of Cloud types


    Identification of cloud types
    Identification of cloud types CH=X

    • Cloud type identification by computer

      • Uses VIS, IR, Water Vapor and the IR Split Window channel imageries.

      • Objective identification is possible.

      • Difficult to consider meteorological conditions and cloud patterns.

    • Cloud type identification by human eyes

      • VIS and IR have been used

      • Being able to use other comprehensive meteorological knowledge


    Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

    Identification by visible and infrared imageries CH=X

    図2-3-1  雲型判別ダイアグラム


    Identification of cloud types1
    Identification of cloud types CH=X

    • Identification by shapes

    • Identification by texture

    • Identification by movement

    • Identification by changes with time


    Case study of cloud type identification
    Case study of cloud type identification CH=X

    Figure 2-4-1 a Infrared image for cloud type identification taken at 03 UTC in March 20, 1999.

    Figure 2-4-1 b Visible image for cloud type identification taken a 03 UTC in March 20, 1999.


    Ci high cloud
    Ci ( High cloud ) CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    Cm middle cloud
    Cm ( Middle cloud ) CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    St stratus fog
    St ( Stratus/Fog ) CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    Sc stratocumulus
    Sc ( Stratocumulus ) CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    Cu cumulus
    Cu ( Cumulus ) CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    Cb cumulonimbus cg cumulus congestus
    Cb CH=X (Cumulonimbus)/Cg (Cumulus congestus)

    Infrared image

    Visible image

    (F pointed by a wedge is Cb. G pointed by wedges is Cg.)


    Dense ci
    Dense Ci CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image


    Cloud type identification by meteorological satellites

    Case study of the granular Ci CH=X

    Infrared image

    Visible image