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Software Performance Engineering. Oldrich Kepka, PCoE SOA Performance Architect Created: Mar 2008. Agenda. About PCoE Group Introduction to SPE SPE applied to Software Development Lifecycle Performance Risk Assessment and Performance Objectives

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software performance engineering

Software Performance Engineering

Oldrich Kepka, PCoE SOA Performance Architect

Created: Mar 2008

  • About PCoE Group
  • Introduction to SPE
  • SPE applied to Software Development Lifecycle
    • Performance Risk Assessment and Performance Objectives
    • Architecture, Design Guidelines and Code Review
    • Performance Modeling
    • Performance Testing
    • Deployment Guidelines
  • Q&A
performance center of excellence
Performance Center of Excellence
  • HP Group
    • responsible for implementing full SPE lifecycle.
    • responsible for knowledge about performance collecting
  • Currently 5 teams
    • AD
    • AM
    • PPM
    • SOA
    • Opsware
    • ?

Proactive instead of Reactive

  • Key Components
    • Performance Team
    • Development
    • Product
    • SPE Methodology
    • Tools
    • Knowledge
  • Key Objectives
    • Increase business revenue by ensuring the system can process transactions within the requisite timeframe.
    • Eliminate late system deployment due to performance issues
    • Eliminate avoidable system rework due to performance issues
    • Avoid additional and unnecessary hardware acquisition costs
    • Reduce increased software maintenance costs due to performance problems in production
software performance engineering1
Engineering for Performance

Performance Objectives

(Response Time, Throughput, Resource Utilization, Workload)

Performance Modeling

(Scenarios, Objectives, Workloads, Requirements, Budgets, Metrics)

Architecture, Design Guidelines & Code Review

(Principles, Practices, Patterns & Anti Patterns, Coupling & Cohesion, Communication,

Concurrency, Resource Mgmt, Caching, State Mgmt, Data Structures, Algorithms)

Performance Risks Assessment

(Project wise, Technical wise)

Deployment Guidelines

(Benchmarking, Capacity Planning, Configuration Tuning)



Performance Engineers





Life Cycle







Measuring, Testing, Tuning

Measuring: Response Time, Throughput, Resource Utilization, Workload

Testing: Load Testing, Stress Testing, Capacity Testing

Tuning: Network, System, Platform, Application

Software Performance Engineering

Building Blocks, Roles & Life Cycle

software performance engineering2
Software Development Life Cycle


Performance Risks & Objectives

Architecture, Design Guidelines & Code Review

Measuring, Testing, Tuning




Deploy & Maintain

Deployment Guidelines

Performance Modeling

Software Performance Engineering

Overlay on Software Life Cycle

performance risks objectives
Performance Risks & Objectives

Performance Risks Analysis

  • SDLC Phase: Requirements, Design
  • Goals
    • Identify high level risks during requirements/design phases, mitigate or manage them
    • Start discussion on topic of performance early
    • Reduce problem space
  • Mostly subjective evaluation in these categories:
    • Business Criticality
    • Execution Frequency
    • New Architecture elements or frameworks
    • Scheduling or Batch Nature
  • Risk Assessment Ranking
    • Low
    • Medium
    • High
performance risks objectives1
Performance Risks & Objectives

Performance Risks Analysis cont.

  • HP SOA Systinet Example
performance risks objectives2
Performance Risks & Objectives

Performance Objectives

  • SDLC Phase:Requirements
  • Pre-requisites
    • Performance Risks Analysis
    • Performance Requirements
  • Goals
    • Define measurable performance objectives that are aligned with customer needs and agreed upon all stakeholders
  • Two approaches
    • Absolute goals
      • Analyze customer environments (Workload Characterization)
      • Determine the right workload for the testing environment.
        • Workload consists of: number of users, concurrent active users, data volumes, key scenarios and transaction volumes
      • Define objectives for: Response Time, Throughput, Resource Utilization
      • Suitable for new projects
    • Relative goals (based on historical data)
      • Group existing operations to sets:
        • Based on response time: fast, medium, slow, asynchronous
        • Based on resource utilization
      • Then assign each operation desired group
      • The main advantage is that we need not deal with target environment, which is sometimes impossible.
software performance engineering3
Software Performance Engineering

Performance Objectives (cont.)

  • Absolute objectives example from BAC 7.5 (just in terms of TRT)

Note: These numbers usually expressed in 90% quantile.

  • Relative objectives example from HP SOA Systinet 2 (just in terms of TRT)
    • Old operations
    • New or updated operations
architecture design guidelines code review
Architecture, Design Guidelines & Code Review

Performance Design Guidelines

  • SDLC Phase:Design
  • Pre-requisites
    • Performance Objectives
    • Performance Risk Analysis
  • Goals
    • Ensure application key design choices takes performance principles under consideration
  • Practices
    • All System Architects, Software Designers and Performance Engineers participate
    • System Architects and Software Designers takes performance into account when creating designs
    • Performance Engineer reviews their work and participate on architecture meeting
    • Prototyping
architecture design guidelines code review1
Architecture, Design Guidelines & Code Review

Code Review

  • SDLC Phase:Develop
  • Pre-requisites
    • Performance Objectives
    • Performance Risk Analysis
  • Goals
    • Ensure that code is written so that it uses resources effectively.
  • Practices
    • Usually done when some sensible unit of code is finished.
    • Done by Performance Engineer in co-operation with Software Designer .
    • Output – set of defects
architecture design guidelines code review2
Architecture, Design Guidelines & Code Review

Development Education

  • SDLC Phase:Design, Develop
  • Goals
    • Educate development about performance aspects of technologies used.
    • Force development to think about things important for performance.
    • Learn development from their own mistakes.
    • Get feedback form development.
  • Practices
    • Bi-weekly meetings
      • Frameworks and libraries used
      • Code Review, Testing etc. results
      • Discussion
performance modeling
Performance Modeling
  • SDLC Phase:Design, Develop, Test
  • Pre-requisites
    • Performance Objectives, Architecture Design, Performance Risk Analysis, Workload Analysis
  • Goals
    • Characterize and understand the system’s behavior so that effective decisions may be made.
    • Orchestrate design, develop and test phases to ensure that performance goals are met.
  • Process
    • Identify key scenarios
    • Identify workloads
    • Identify budget
      • Budget are your constraints – execution time, resource utilization
      • For example peak CPU utilization 75% and memory consumption 4GB
    • Identify performance objectives
    • Identify processing steps
      • Itemize your scenarios
    • Allocate budget
      • Assign execution times to steps
        • If you don’t know how, divide it equally. Later on you will correct your assignment.
      • Assign resource utilization
    • Evaluate – modify your design, reevaluate requirements, change budged allocation
    • Validate – prototypes and performance measuring
    • Repeat 4. 5. 6.until goals are met.
measuring testing tuning
Measuring, Testing & Tuning

Performance Testing

  • SDLC Phase:Develop, Test
  • Goals
    • Identify how well application performs in relation to performance objectives
  • Key Types of Performance Testing
    • Performance Test
      • Load Test
        • Behavior under normal and peak load.
        • Endurance Test (Longevity Test) – MTBF and MTTF
      • Stress Test
        • Behavior when pushed beyond normal or peak load
        • Synchronization issues, race conditions and memory leaks
        • Spike Test – behavior under repeated short peaks
      • Capacity Test
        • To plan future system growth.
        • To identify scaling strategy.
  • Additional Concepts
    • Unit Test
    • Component Test
    • Smoke Test
measuring testing tuning1
Measuring, Testing & Tuning

Performance Measuring

  • SDLC Phase:Test, Deploy, Maintain
  • Goals
    • Identify how the application performance stands in relation to defined performance goals
    • Helps to identify the bottlenecks that affect application performance
  • Practices
    • Measure System and Platform metrics
    • Measure Network
    • Profiling
    • Analyze log files
    • Instrument the application
measuring testing tuning2
Measuring, Testing & Tuning

Performance Tuning

  • SDLC Phase:Develop, Test, Deploy, Maintain
  • Goals
    • identification and systematic elimination of bottlenecks to improve performance
  • Inputs
    • Good product and environment knowledge.
  • Categories for Tuning
    • Application. Includes the application configuration parameters.
    • Platform. Includes the host operating system, together with Web and database servers
    • System. Includes the hardware resources on a server. These resources include CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O.
  • Process
    • Run test and measure relevant metrics
    • Result analysis (JVM behavior, thread pools, connection pools, DB wait events etc.)
    • Propose parameter modification based on results
    • Modify test environment accordingly
    • Run test again
    • Compare results (iterate)
deployment guidelines
Deployment Guidelines

Performance Benchmarking

  • SDLC Phase:Test, Deploy
  • Goals
    • Assess the relative performance of an application in particular environment.
    • Equip field personnel with valuable information to facilitate product sales
  • Details
    • Base for customer environment validation.
    • Characterize HW requirements
    • Proving capabilities in comparing to competitors
    • Promoting sales
  • PCoE teams provide benchmarking kits for their customers.
deployment guidelines1
Deployment Guidelines

Capacity Planning

  • SDLC Phase:Test, Deploy, Maintain
  • Goals
    • Planning for growth and forecasting peak usage periods in order to meet system and application capacity requirements
  • Practices
    • Transaction cost analysis
      • Compile a user profile
      • Execute discrete tests
      • Measure the cost of each operation
      • Calculate the cost of an average user profile
      • Calculate site capacity
      • Verify site capacity
    • Predictive analysis
      • Collect performance data
      • Query the existing historical data
      • Analyze the historical performance data
      • Predict the future requirements
software performance engineering4
Software Performance Engineering


  • HP LoadRunner
  • HP Analysis
  • HP Diagnostics
  • YourKit
  • Idea 7.0
  • Oracle AWR reports
  • Oracle Remote Diagnostic Agent
  • Our own tools