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THE SPREAD OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION to Korea, Japan, Vietnam Medieval pattern: Civilizations spread beyond their major centers (as in the case of Islam spreading to South and East Asia). KOREA I. Pattern of Korea’s relationship with China

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slide1

THE SPREAD OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION

to Korea, Japan, Vietnam

Medieval pattern: Civilizations spread beyond their major centers (as

in the case of Islam spreading to South and East Asia).

slide2

KOREA

I. Pattern of Korea’s relationship with China

A. Partially conquered by Han (108 BCE-313 CE)

B. Post-Han: Independent kingdoms pay tribute to China.

C. Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Korea, then Japan, after fall

of Han.

D. Korea adopts Chinese writing system.

slide3

CHINA

II. SILLA, 668-935 C.E.

A. Tributary to Tang China

B. Imitated Tang; sent scholars to China

to study and to bring back

Confucian classics

Remember him?

Silla dynasty tomb mounds, Kyongju

slide4

C. Chinese-style bureaucracy filled via exams

pavilion on grounds of Changdeokgung Palace (1405, Seoul) where exams were held

slide5

D. Aristocracy too strong to allow scholar-bureaucrat class

E. Buddhism too strong for Confucianism to take root

(1) Monks are influential at Silla court.

(2) Silla kings patronize monasteries and temples.

Pulguk-Sa temple (751 C.E.), Kyongju

slide7

Punhwang-Sa temple (634 C.E.)

Chomsangdae observatory (7th c.)

slide8

Hall where wood blocks for printing Buddhist scriptures (13th c.) are kept,

Haein-Sa temple

slide9

“Three Buddhist Treasures” motif at

Haien-Sa monastery

tile from Ottoman Empire

swastika (s-vasti-ka = “conducive to well-being”)

on shrine in Chinju

fortress

slide10

Korea’s economy is subordinated to that of Tang and Song China:

  • Korea imports luxury goods (silk clothing, scrolls, etc.), exports raw materials (copper, wood).
  • G. Korea exports some luxury goods for Chinese (and Japanese)
  • elites.

“Emille” Bell, Kyongju National Museum Koryo (918-1392) celadon

(porcelain)

slide11

Rule by aristocracy

  • A. Aristocracy is too powerful for warlords, bureaucrats, or other
  • social elements to dislodge (in contrast to China).
  • change of dynasty = change of aristocratic family
  • Silla, 668-935→Koryo, 918-1392→Yi/Lee (Choson), 1392-1910
  • B. Choson dynasty patronizes Confucianism, persecutes Buddhists.

throne at Changdeokgung palace, Seoul

slide13

JAPAN

  • Island that absorbs Chinese
  • cultural influences while re-
  • taining political autonomy
  • Emperor = minor Shinto god, descendant of sun goddess
  • III. Adopts Chinese writing system,
  • 4th century
  • Mahayana Buddhism arrives via Korea, 6th century.
  • IV. Adopts Chinese political structure, 7th century
  • A. Sinified emperor: “Son of
  • Heaven”
  • B. Bureaucracy staffed by exams
  • in Confucian classics
  • C. Japan’s bureaucracy is filled by
  • urban aristocrats influential at
  • court (no scholar- gentry class, as
  • in China).

CHINA

slide14

Aristocratic court culture, 8th-9th centuries: tea ceremony,

  • landscapes, haiku
  • 1st novel: Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki (c. 973-1025)
slide15

VI. Buddhism remains a much greater socio-cultural force

than in Tang and Song China.

VII. Aristocrats and provincial warlords are too powerful for

emperor to rein in→feudal system dominated by

warlords by 12th century

slide17

VIETNAM (Annam)

  • Southeast Asian cultural sphere: Chinese/Indian
  • Theravada Buddhism spreads directly from India, strikes deeper roots.
slide18

III. Partially conquered by Han (111 B.C.E.), who introduce

Chinese writing and bureaucracy.

IV. Aristocracy rebels against Chinese, 10th century.

Vietnam remains independent until 19th c.

V. Vietnamese expand into other parts of SE Asia, become

dominant political/cultural force in region.

CHINA