Mild TBI: Out of Sight, but not Out of Mind. Ronald C. Savage, Ed.D. The CDC’s definition of MTBI
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Ronald C. Savage, Ed.D.
“An MTBI or concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiologic process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces secondary to direct or indirect forces to the head. MTBI is caused by a jolt to the head or body that disrupts the function of the brain. This disturbance of brain function is typically associated with normal structural neuroimaging findings (i.e. CT Scan, MRI). MTBI results in a constellation of physical, cognitive, emotional and/or sleep-related symptoms and may or may not involve a loss of consciousness (LOC). Duration of symptoms is highly variable and may last from several minutes to days, weeks, months, or longer in some cases.”
(Aubry et al., 2002; McCrory et al., 2005).
mTBI is more “neuro-chemical” than it is “physio-mechanical”
How many Sports and Recreation concussions occur each year?An estimated 1.6 to 3.8 million sports- and recreation-related concussions occur in the U.S. each year, including those for which no medical care is sought. This range includes both concussions with and without loss of consciousness (LOC) and is based on studies that suggest that injuries involving LOC may account only for between 8% and 19.2% of sports concussions. This estimate supersedes that from an earlier CDC study that reported 300,000 sports- and recreation-related concussions per year which was based only on those injuries with LOC.
Lovell, Collins, Iverson, Field, Podell, Cantu, Fu; J Neurosurgery; 98:296-301,2003
Lovell, Collins, Iverson, Johnston, Bradley; Amer J Sports Med; 32:47-54,2004
Mechanism of Injury for mTBI (B-19 years) N = 8016
Vomits or feels sick
Parts of body tingle or feel numb
Loses balance, trips or stumbles a lot
Feels worn out or exhausted
Drowsy or sleepy
Needs extra sleep
Hard to fall and stay asleep
Sensitive to light and noise
Ringing in earsPhysical Changes
Build in rest periods
Give more time to complete work
Outline and order steps for big tasks
Give written directions or template
Use notebook check off “to do” list
Write down schedules w/places, times, etc
Meet with Teacher to review home work at end of day
Inform school nurse, counselor, sp eduTips for helping the Student
Hippocrates, 4th Century, B.C.