Global logistics causes of variation
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GLOBAL LOGISTICS, CAUSES OF VARIATION. Background. Headquartered in Purchase, NY World’s largest producer of paper and forest products Forward integrated into distribution (XPEDX) Backward integrated into forestry mgt. Products

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  • Headquartered in Purchase, NY

  • World’s largest producer of paper and forest products

  • Forward integrated into distribution (XPEDX)

  • Backward integrated into forestry mgt.

  • Products

    • papers, packaging products, building materials, pulp, chemicals

International shipping
International Shipping

  • Production facilities located worldwide

    • bulk is in eastern U.S.

  • Small margin on paper prevents shipping large quantities internationally

  • Pulp makes up largest portion of international shipments

    • higher margin allows for more international sales

Example us to australia
Example: US to Australia

IP Mills (Southeast US)

Ocean Freight

30-60 days

Rail 4-10 days

(depends on origin)

Freight Forwarder

(New Orleans)

Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane

Closer look at ocean freight
Closer Look at Ocean Freight

  • Statistics calculated from quoted transit times for IP’s contracted carriers

  • Why the large discrepancy between carriers ?

Global logistics causes of variation

Carrier Differences

  • Primary Factor is Resource Allocation

  • If US to Australia is a primary lane

    • vessels make the trip non stop

    • shipments aren’t transferred at an intermediary port

  • IF US to Australia is a secondary lane

    • vessels will stop in an intermediary port (most likely Asia)

    • Shipments are transferred to different vessel before reach final stop

Global logistics causes of variation

Transit Time Variation by Carrier

Primary Carriers

Secondary Carriers

  • Much less variable than by secondary carrier

  • Typically more expensive

  • Primary factors

    • missing departure due to fumigation requirements

    • mechanical failure

    • Human error

  • Usually no more than 7 days off

  • More variable

  • But usually less expensive

  • Primary factors

    • Missing connections in intermediary port

    • missing departure due to fumigation requirements

    • mechanical failure

    • Human error

  • Anywhere from 7 -14 days off


  • Headquartered in Middletown, Ohio.

  • A leader in the production of coated and cold-rolled carbon and stainless steel products.

  • Customers include automobile, appliance, construction, and distribution and service centers.


  • Operation facilities in

    • Ashland, Kentucky

    • Middletown, Ohio

    • Rockport, Indiana

  • Strategic partner in Mexico

    • Hylsamex in Monterrey, Mexico

Transportation modes
Transportation Modes

1-3 days

Rail 3-4 days


Rail 1-2 days

Barge 40-50 days

Truck 1 day




Brownsville, TX

Truck 2-4 days

Affecting factors
Affecting Factors

  • the time spent in Custom’s to process the paperwork

  • the availability of capacity, such as containers, trucks, and so on

  • traffic

  • weather

Smurfit stone

  • New Company (1998) merger of Jefferson Smurfit Corporation and Stone Container Corporation

  • Leading force in the paperboard and paper packaging industry

  • Operates approximately 300 facilities worldwide

Containerboard mill division
Containerboard Mill Division

  • Operation:

    • 12 kraft linerboard mills, 11 medium mills

  • Production:

    • Unbleached kraft linerboard and Medium

  • Products:

    • Commodity and specialty paperboards for conversion into corrugated containers, folding cartons, and related products.

Corrugated container operations
Corrugated Container Operations

  • Operation:

    • More than 150 corrugated container plants in North America and 33 plants in Europe, Asia, Australia and South America

  • Production:

    • Nation’s largest supplier of corrugated containers, made linerboard and corrugating medium (supply by CMD)

  • Products:

    • High-quality corrugated containers

Operation between cmd and cco mexico
Operation between CMD and CCO-Mexico

  • Rail: From U.S. Mills to Mexican Border

  • Truck: From Mexican Border to plants

  • Project Scope:

    • Rail Operations

    • Causes of Variability in the Supply Chain










From florida to mex border
From Florida to Mex. Border

Rail Shipments

Normal Dist.

From louisiana mex border
From Louisiana Mex. Border

Rail Shipments

No Normal Dist.

Causes of variation
Causes Of Variation

Supply Chain

  • Rail:

    • Not Direct Route

    • High Demand in Pick Season

  • Customs:

    • Shift to Truck

    • Paperwork

    • Traffic Congestion

  • Truck:

    • Availability

Fibras quimicas
Fibras Quimicas

  • Mexican company, Located in Monterrey, Mexico.

  • Fibras Quimicas' parent company is Akra.

  • Akra's holding company is Alpek.

  • Alpek is the petrochemical division of Group Alfa.

  • Group Alfa is one of the biggest industrial groups in Mexico.

  • Group Alfa is an association of Mexican companies focused on the diverse and quite varying industry sectors including the steel, food, petrochemicals, synthetic fibers, aluminum auto parts, mattresses, carpets and telecommunications.

Fibras Quimicas


  • Poliester Products :

  • Textured Yarns

  • Flat Yarns

  • Pre-oriented Yarns ( POY )

  • Wrapped Yarns

  • Twisted Yarns

  • Final Uses :

  • Apparel

  • Home Textiles

  • Out wear

  • Linings

  • Narrows

  • Upholstery

  • Mattress and thicking

  • Automotive fabrics

  • Comfort fabrics

Operations of fibras quimicas
Operations of Fibras Quimicas

By Truck

Canada 8 to 9 Days

U.S. Eastern Coast 5 to 6 Days

This is where we got raw data, and where we will do a more extensive analysis.

By Ship

Europe 28 to 30 Days

Africa 30 to 32 Days ( Morocco )

Middle East 38 to 40 Days ( Syria )

By Ship

South America 20 to 25 Days

Colombia 12 to 15 Days

By Truck

Central America 10 to 15 Days

Shipping to the united states and canada
Shipping to The United States and Canada

  • We were able to gather raw data on 5 U.S. customers and 2 Canadian customers.

  • This customers account for 67% of Fibras Quimicas sales in the North America region.

  • Team Drivers = the use of two drivers for the same truck ½ the lead time.

  • We took out this effect, because it disrupted our data, only use less than 5% of the time ! Higher cost !

Crossing the mexico u s border
Crossing the Mexico – U.S. Border

  • One of the greater sources for variability is crossing the border.

  • Although for Canadian shipments, this doesn't affect that much!

  • Crosses at Laredo Texas !

Final Destination Canada

The trucks, will

have to wait their turn

to cross, the traffic can

go up to 1 mile..

The Cargo is sealed as

Inbound, and passes

without inspection.

Final Destination U.S.

+ Var.

The Truck is sent to a big facility,

where it waits for an American

driver, Mexican drivers still

are not allowed to cross the border.

If Inspection needed

(determined randomly by

U.S. Customs)

It can delay the shipment

for one whole day.

Guilford mills
Guilford Mills

  • Located in Monroe, NC.

  • Produces Automotive fabrics FORD FOCUS.

  • 47 Shipments

  • Mean 5 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.64

  • Team drivers, we took out 4 points, mean went to 5.2 and std dev. to 0.19

  • Inventory buffer on site 2 weeks.

  • Pass the Normality Test.

  • AKRA uses the same carrier.

  • Lower lead time than Culp, that is on the same city !

  • Service important to this customer.

Rayonese textile
Rayonese Textile

  • Located in St. Jerome, PQ.

  • Produces Mattress & thicking and upholstery.

  • 39 Shipments

  • Mean 7.8 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.12

  • Canadian Customer

  • No Team drivers !

  • Fail the Normality Test.

  • AKRA uses different carriers depending on availability and price!

  • The distribution is shifted to the right.

Other customers
Other Customers

Burke Mills

Culp Weaving

Dan River

  • Located in Valdese, NC.

  • Dye yarns and resell them.

  • 19 Shipments

  • Mean 5.1 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.74

  • Team drivers ! took out 2 points mean went to 5.3 days and std dev. to 0.21

  • Pass the Normality Test.

  • Located in Monroe, NC.

  • Produces Mattress & thicking and upholstery.

  • 18 Shipments

  • Mean 5.9 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.18

  • No Team drivers !

  • Inventory buffer on site 2 weeks.

  • Pass the Normality Test.

  • Located in Danville, VA.

  • Produces Bed in a Bag.

  • 17 Shipments

  • Mean 6 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.22

  • No Team drivers !

  • Pass the Normality Test.

Bluementhal Mills

Huntingdon Mills

  • Located in Sumter, SC.

  • Produces Mattress & thicking and upholstery.

  • 58 Shipments

  • Mean 5.3 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.34

  • No Team drivers !

  • Inventory Buffer on site 3 weeks.

  • Pass the Normality Test.

  • Located in Hawksbury, ON.

  • Produces Polar fleece.

  • 21 Shipments

  • Mean 8.8 Days

  • Std Dev. 0.13

  • Canadian Customer

  • No Team drivers !

  • Pass the Normality Test.

  • AKRA uses different carriers in all of this customers, depending on availability and price!

Akra s conclusions
AKRA's Conclusions

We have found some important factors that affect variability, when shipping by truck to The United States and Canada.

  • Inspection by U.S. Customs.

  • Driver availability at the border.

  • Using different carriers or using a dedicated carrier, that reduces variability.

  • Traffic jams at border.

  • Weather conditions.

General conclusions


Lead-Time Variability Volume Costs

























General Conclusions