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  1. Radio News Reporting Lecture-Workshop for USC-KNN

  2. The dog bites a man. A man bites a dog. What is NEWS?

  3. What is NEWS? • Dean Spencer of Syracuse University: “…any account of a person, idea or event which interest a large number of people and is capable of being understood by them.”

  4. Elements of News • Timeliness • Prominence • Proximity • Oddity or Novelty • Significance, Impact or Consequence

  5. Elements of News • Conflict • Suspense • Human Interest • Progress • Humor

  6. EXERCISE • Look for a partner who’s not very close/familiar to you. • Interview each other. • Determine something newsworthy of the person you are talking with. • Write a 3 to 5-paragraph news about your partner. • Presentation of your news.

  7. News Process • News Gathering • News Writing • News Presentation/Reporting

  8. News Process • News Gathering • Story Conference • Deployment of news team/reporter • News Desk vs. Field Reporter • News Producer vs. News Anchor • Art of Interviewing • Human Trail, Paper Trail, Electronic Trail • News Writing • News Presentation/Reporting

  9. News Process • News Gathering • News Writing • Determine the focus sentence • Radio News Script format • Writing the lead paragraph • News Story Form and Organization • Inverted Pyramid vs. Square Format • Importance of Script • Cardinal Rule in Writing for Radio • Cebuano News Writing/Reporting • News Presentation/Reporting

  10. News Process • News Gathering • News Writing • Determine the focus sentence • It helps you decide what you must include. • It helps you decide what you can leave out. • It helps you decide what order to set out the facts to lead the listener through the story logically. • It sums up the essentials of your story in one sentence that answers these three questions: Who, What, and Why?

  11. Focus Sentence • Examples: Kim teaches Writing for Radio because she wants journalists to tell compelling radio stories. People in Buenos Aires are planning to march tonight because they want the mayor to resign after a nightclub fire killed more than 180 people.

  12. Focus Sentence • Examples: Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada seeks full media coverage of the trial of his cases to inform the public of the status of his case. Giant broadcasting network ABS-CBN has vowed to remain free from government’s censorship especially during the times when the public needs most of the information.

  13. Focus Sentence • Focus: Indonesian authorities are speeding up the naming of all of its islands to prepare the country in territorial disputes resolution. Indonesia islands/morning prime News/ March 8, 2006 The United Nations has asked Indonesia to speed up the naming of all of its islands. Marine Affairs and Fisheries Minister Freddy Numberi says the country has until 2007 to submit the names to the U-N. Freddy says barely half of the more than 17-thousand islands in Indonesia have been named.

  14. Focus Sentence He said local authorities are now being tasked to name their respective islands rather than wait for the Ministry of Home Affairs to do it. Freddy warned that the delay in naming the islands will jeopardize Indonesia’s claim over these islands before an international forum. Other countries have also claims over some of the islands. Freddy is optimistic Indonesia would be able to submit on time the names of its islands. -30- Next: Radio News Script Format

  15. Radio News Script Format SCRIPT-ONLY Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening. They’re angry at the government over last week’s nightclub fire. It killed more than 180 people. The protestors are complaining that authorities let the club operate with locked emergency doors, flammable sound proofing and dangerous overcrowding.

  16. Radio News Script Format Most of the victims were in their teens. But some were children and babies. That’s because witnesses say the club operated a makeshift child-care center. Yesterday for a second straight day, many protestors marched toward City Hall to call for the mayor to resign for allowing the club to exist. Police have arrested the owner of the club. The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters [end]

  17. Radio News Script Format SCRIPT CLIP Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening. They’re angry at the government over last week’s nightclub fire. It killed more than 180 people. The protestors are complaining that authorities let the club operate with locked emergency doors, flammable sound proofing and dangerous overcrowding. THE GROUP’S SPOKESMAN—PETER PAN—SAYS IT’S DISGUSTING. ===================================== VOICECLIP: PETER PAN (:15 secs.) CUE IN : WE’RE DISGUSTED BY THE ACTIONS OF CITY HALL… CUE OUT : …HEADS IN CITY HALL MUST ROLL. ====================================

  18. Radio News Script Format SPOKESMAN OF THE PROTESTORS—PETER PAN—TALKING TO REPORTER KENNETH GALANO… Most of the victims were in their teens. But some were children and babies. That’s because witnesses say the club operated a makeshift child-care center. Yesterday for a second straight day, many protestors marched toward City Hall to call for the mayor to resign for allowing the club to exist. Police have arrested the owner of the club. The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters.

  19. Radio News Script Format WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening TO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL… next

  20. Lead Paragraph WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening TO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL…

  21. Lead Paragraph WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening TO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL… Who?

  22. Lead Paragraph WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another march this evening TO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL… What? Who?

  23. Lead Paragraph WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another marchthis evening TO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL… What? Who? When?

  24. Lead Paragraph WRAP/VOICE REPORT Afternoon News/March 1, 2005 NightClub fire/script-only Kenneth Protesters in Buenos Aires are planning another marchthis eveningTO CALL FOR THE MAYOR’S RESIGNATION… KENNETH GALANO HAS THIS REPORT FROM CITY HALL… ===================================== VOICE REPORT: NIGHTCLUB FIRE/KENNETH (1:00min) CUE IN: They’re angry at the government over… CUE OUT: The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters. Kenneth Galano reporting from City Hall. ===================================== KENNETH GALANO REPORTING FROM CITY HALL… Next: News Story Form and Organization What? Who? When? Why?

  25. most important facts supporting details additional details more details News Story Form & Organization Inverted Pyramid

  26. story lead fact 2 and detail fact 3 and detail rounding off News Story Form & Organization Square Format

  27. Ending Your Story • Summary Ending • Climax Ending • Stinger • Un-ending

  28. Ending Your Story • Summary Ending Like the summary lead, the summary ending wraps up the story with the most important facts. Ex.: Yesterday for a second straight day, many protestors marched toward City Hall to call for the mayor to resign for allowing the club to exist. Police have arrested the owner of the club. The fire is one of Argentina’s worst disasters.

  29. Ending Your Story • Climax Ending The writer focuses in the peak of the event, ironically creating an anti-climatic effect in the reader. Ex.: What finally brought down the seemingly indestructible monument to penal abuse was a footage videotaped last month of guards clubbing naked prisoners. President Ernesto Perez Balladares chose Dec. 10, International Human Rights Day, to blow up what a grafitto called the ANTECHAMBER OF HELL. Sighed hotdog vendor, Pablo Rodriguez: “Too much suffering, too much disgrace. It’s finally over.”

  30. Ending Your Story • Stinger Ending The writer ends with something totally unsuspected by the reader. Ex.: And so Ramon, the shy and lovable Ramon, ended up to be the vicious rapist hunted for in at least three states.

  31. Ending Your Story • Un-ending This type of ending purposely ends on a limb, creating suspense and interest in a follow up. Ex.: Informants are often reluctant to come forward, whether out of fear, loyalty or a general aversion to getting involved, and this case has provided its own reasons for tipsters to be wary. Many sources who gave the FBI information on Jewell, ranging from his work history to his living habits, must be wondering today if the leads they provided helped keep the investigation focused in a probably innocent man. Still, the FBI is hoping that popular interest in seeing the real bomber punished and the lure of a $500,000 bounty, will keep those calls and photos coming.

  32. News Sentence Structure • Passive sentences • Follows the Object-Verb-Subject agreement • Example: O V S A man was bitten by the dog. • Active sentences • Follows the Subject-Verb-Object agreement • Example: S V O The dog bites a man.

  33. Importance of Script • It ensures smooth continuity of the program • Smooth flow of things from beginning to end • Avoidance of “dead air” • Keeps from saying anything irrelevant • It aids in proper program timing • Ensures program not to go overtime or undertime • It approximates the total program length

  34. Importance of Script • It ensures accuracy of information • Written facts are far better than be dependent on the announcer’s memory. • Summarizes facts in magazines, books or pieces of paper • It helps in presenting information in an organized manner • Guides in discussing information in a logical order.

  35. The Cardinal Rule in Writing for Radio • IT’S SPOKEN (“Write for the ear, not for the eye”) • Think it, say it, then write! • Use contractions • Change complex words to simpler ones • Punctuate for sound • Avoid sound clashes • Provide a pronunciation guide

  36. No Contractions I will It is She is He would not Dalan Sumala Gikawatan og Using Contractions I’ll It’s She’s He wouldn’t Da’an Suma’a Gikawata’g CONTRACTIONS

  37. Complex Words Nictitate Halitosis Monosodium Glutamate Law of Supply and Demand Simple Words Wink Bad breath Seasoning or Vetsin Increase in demand COMPLEX WORDS

  38. Punctuate for Sound ! – indicates inflection—something to emphasize. ? - signifies questions /,… - indicate pause  - in a happy mood

  39. Avoid Sound Clashes Avoid alliterations—repetition of the initial sound of nearby words or syllables. Wilma and William watched the window washers walk with Walter.

  40. Avoid Sound Clashes Be careful of sibilant (s,z,sh,zh,ch,j) and popping (b, p) sounds She saw some shiny shells shimmering on the shore while she sat sipping her champagne. Bobby blew and blew some big, bright blue bubbles.

  41. Avoid Sound Clashes Watch out for tongue twisters. Thirty thrifty rural residents rented thirty-three tricycles. Sherry Sue sure showed some spirit studying Statistics she’s taking this summer. Ang relo ni Roy Royal.

  42. Avoid Sound Clashes Avoid repeating words or using words that have the same sound. The local building was built by a local builder.

  43. Pronunciation Guide It is important not to mispronounce names of persons, places or things Antilles (An-til-lez) Pneumonia (noo-mo-nia) Tawo (taw’)

  44. Pronunciation Guide Break down scientific and technical terms that are difficult to read. Extraterritoriality (ex-tra-ter-ri-to-ria-li-ty) Deoxyribonucleic acid (deo-xy-ri-bo-nuc-lic acid)

  45. Cebuano Journalism Sentence Structure: S V O I am going to the Carbon Market. Ako moadto sa Carbon Market. V S O Moadto ko sa Carbon Market

  46. News Process • News Gathering • News Writing • News Presentation/Reporting • Live Reports • Scripts, Outline, Raw Notes • Live interviews (Expert, M-O-T-S) • Canned Reports • Pre-recorded in tape or CD/USB stick • Newscasting • Anchors read scripts most of the time • Ad libs are not permitted unless there are technical problems.