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RUSSIAN HISTORY. “A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.” – Winston Churchill. RUSSIAN HISTORY. 1/6 th of the earth’s landmass 6,000 miles E-W, 3,000 miles N-S 150 different nationalities 125 different languages 40 different religions

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slide3

RUSSIAN HISTORY

  • 1/6th of the earth’s landmass
  • 6,000 miles E-W, 3,000 miles N-S
  • 150 different nationalities
  • 125 different languages
  • 40 different religions
  • 290 million people live in the former Soviet Union
slide4

KIEVAN RUS'

  • City-state of Kiev
  • Legendary Rurik (c. r. 860-879) – Novgorod “new city”
  • Rurik Dynasty (862-1598)
  • Oleg – moved capital to Kiev (882)
  • Oleg (882-912), Vladimir I (980-1015)
  • Christianity to Russia
  • Orthodox Faith
slide6

RELIGION

  • Vladimir I married Anna, sister of Basil II (Byzantine Emperor)
  • Legend – investigated four principle faiths – Islam, Catholicism, Judaism, Eastern Orthodox
  • 988 – Eastern Orthodox
slide10

MONGOLS

  • Genghis Khan (1167?-1227)
  • “Mongol Hordes”
  • Russian Expansion
  • “little Slavic brothers”
  • Today, 240 million of 290 million people in Russia are Slavic
slide12

TIMELINE

  • KIEVAN RUS (862-1240)
  • MONGOL RULE (1240-1480)
  • MOSCOVITE GRAND DUCHY (1330-1547)
  • MOSCOVITE CZARDOM (1547-1722)
  • RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1722-1917)
  • SOVIET PERIOD (1917/22 – 1991)
  • POST COMMUNIST RUSSIA (1991- PRESENT)
slide13

CYRILLIC

  • Alphabet
  • St. Cyril – missionary from Byzantium
  • Slavic Language
slide15

RISE OF MOSCOW

  • Ivan I (1328-1341) – “Ivan the Moneybag”
  • Paid tribute to the Mongols
  • Won favor with the Khan
  • Persuaded the Tartars to stop invading
slide16

RISE OF MOSCOW

  • IVAN III (1462-1505) – “The Great”
  • Grand Duke of Moscow
  • Unification of Russian Lands
  • Married Sophia niece of the last Byzantine Emperor
  • Moscow “Third Rome”
  • Autocrat – first to use the unofficial title of Czar (Caesar)
slide17

CZARIST RUSSIA

  • IVAN IV (1533-1584) – “The Terrible”
  • First to formally take the title of Tsar
  • Reduced the power of the Boyars (nobility)
  • Expanded Russian territory
  • Autocratic
slide18

TIME OF TROUBLES

  • (1584-1613)
  • Ivan IV dies without a legitimate heir to the throne
  • Princes, imposters, boyars fought for the power
  • Continuous chaos, famine, civil war, foreign threats – Poland, Sweden
  • 1613 ended Time of Troubles – crowning of Mikhail Romanov – 300 year rule (1613-1917)
slide19

ROMANOV EMPERORS

  • Peter I (r. 1696-1725)
  • Catherine II (r. 1762-1796)
  • Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855)
  • Alexander II (r. 1855-1881)
  • Alexander III (r.1881-1894)
  • Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917)
slide20

PETER I

  • “The Great” – Westernization, Modernization, Power & Progress
  • Meritocracy – Table of Ranks (1722)
  • Foreign Bureaucrats
  • Division of the Empire into 50 provinces
  • Holy Synod – State administer Church
  • St. Petersburg (1703)
slide21

PETER I

  • Establishment of schools – artillery, engineering, military medicine
  • Militarism, Russia’s first Navy
  • Great Northern War (1700-21)
  • Territorial Expansion “warm water port”
  • Reduced the power of the Boyars and Russian Orthodox Church
  • St. Petersburg (1703)
slide24

ST. PETERSBURG

  • 1703
  • “City built on Bones”
  • “Window to the West”
  • Russian Versailles
  • 1914 – St. Petersburg – Petrograd
  • 1924 – Leningrad
  • 1991 – renamed St. Petersburg
slide25

CATHERINE II

  • German Princess
  • Married Peter III (r. 1762-1796)
  • Expanded Russian borders – Black Sea
  • Partitioned Poland (1772, 1793,1795)
  • Enlightened Despot?
slide26

CATHERINE II

  • Philosophes – Voltaire, Diderot
  • Questioned serfdom, torture, capital punishment
  • New Schools – Elementary, Engineering, Teacher training
  • Charter of the Nobility (1785) – increased power of nobles
slide28

PUGACHEV'S REBELLION

  • (c. 1742-75)
  • Cossack
  • Claimed to be Peter III
  • 25,000 peasant followers
  • Claimed to end serfdom
  • Uprising brutally crushed
  • Executed in Moscow
slide29

ALEXANDER I

  • (1801-1825)
  • Grandson of Catherine II
  • Befriended and fought Napoleon
  • Congress of Vienna (1814-15)
  • Early hopes of liberalism gave way to conservatism during his reign
slide30

NICHOLAS I

  • (r. 1825-1855)
  • Decembrists Revolt (1825)– secret society of revolutionaries
  • Motto “autocracy, orthodoxy, nation”
  • Suppressed liberal thought
slide31

ALEXANDER II

  • (r. 1855 – 1881)
  • Crimean War (1853-56) – turning pt. – backward industrially
  • Potential rebellion
  • “better from above, than below”
  • REFORMS – educational, judicial, military, local
  • 1861 – Emancipation of the serfs
slide32

EMANCIPATION

  • Mir – Russian peasant communities – corporate body, reallocated land periodically
  • 16th century – 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
  • Freed all Russian serfs (1/3 of population)
  • Land given to the Mir
  • Insufficient amount of land, archaic agricultural methods
slide33

ZEMSTOV

  • Local assembly – provincial self-government
  • 1864-1917
  • Districts elected representatives (only wealthy could vote)
  • Controlled education, public health, roads, agriculture, commerce
  • Replaced by the soviet (council)
slide34

ALEXANDER II

  • Several attempted assassinations
  • Successful assassination 1881 (People’s Will)
  • Western liberal ideas continued to plague Russian autocracy
slide35

ALEXANDER III

  • (r. 1881-1894)
  • “Russification”
  • Designed to target reformers
  • Poles, Finns, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and Armenians
  • Forced to adopt Russian language, culture, and religion
  • Greater good for all of Russia
  • Persecution of Jews – pogroms (to wreak havoc, demolish violently)
slide36

NICHOLAS II

  • (r. 1894-1917)
  • Last Russian Emperor, Tsar, Romanov
  • Two War – Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
  • WWI – 1914-18
  • Despite the loss of territory, massive casualties, stubborn supporter of the right of the sovereign
slide37

RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

  • Imperialistic ambitions for Russia –
  • “Warm Water Port”
  • Domination over Korea and Manchuria
  • Trans-Siberian Railway (1891-1904)
  • Japanese Victory
  • 400,000 casualties Russia
  • One of the Immediate causes of Revolution of 1905
slide38

REVOLUTION OF 1905

  • Military disaster = domestic upheaval
  • Century of autocratic rule
  • Massive demonstration – 200,000 unarmed
  • “God Save the Tsar”
  • Workers – general strike, reduction of work day, increase in wages, end to War
  • Police and Cossacks open fired – 100 killed, 300 wounded = BLOODY SUNDAY
  • Dress rehearsal for the Revolutions of 1917
slide39

RUSSIA WWI

  • Largest army in the world (6,553,000 – 4,652,000 rifles)
  • Approximately 15 million Russian men served in WWI
  • 9.2 Million killed (military & civilian), 5 million wounded
  • Forced conscription, famine, high casualties caused riots in many cities
  • March 15, 1917 Nicholas II abdicated
slide40

PROVISIONAL GOV'T

  • February Revolution of 1917
  • Headed by Prince George Lvov – unwillingness to withdraw Russia from WWI made him unpopular
  • July 1917 replaced by Alexander Kerensky – Socialist Revolutionary Party – champion of the workers – also refused to withdraw from WWI
  • Petrograd Soviet – (Paris Commune) radical pushed Russia to the Left
slide41

PROVISIONAL GOV'T

  • Abdication of Czar Nicholas II
  • March 17, 1917 – Russia Republic
  • Constituent Assembly
  • Universal Male Suffrage
  • Promised a Constitution
  • Promised redistribution of land to the peasants but took no action
slide42

ARMY ORDER #1

  • Issued by the Petrograd Soviet (workers council)
  • Democratically elected committees would run the army
  • Disastrous – complete breakdown of all army discipline
  • April 1917 – Germany to undermine the Provisional Government sent Lenin back to Russia sealed inside a train car
slide43

POLITICAL PARTIES

TWO MAIN ISSUES – WAR, REDISTRIBUTION OF LAND

slide44

BOLSHEVIKS

  • Led by Vladimir Lenin
  • Small party of professional revolutionaries with a large group of supporters
  • Preaching Marxism
  • October Revolution 1917
slide45

LENIN

  • Immediate peace with the Central Powers - WWI
  • Redistribution of land to the peasants
  • Transfer of factories, mines, industrial plants from capitalists to committees of workers
  • Recognition of the soviets as supreme power instead of the Provisional Government
slide46
“LENIN AND THE BOLSHEVIKS DID NOT BRING ABOUT THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. THEY CAPTURED IT AFTER IT HAD BEGUN.” – RR Palmer
slide47

OCTOBER REVOLUTION

  • November 1917 (Gregorian Calendar)
  • Bolsheviks with the support of the army seize key communication, transportation, and utilities
  • Provisional Government fled for lack of support
  • Timed takeover coincide with the election of the Congress of Soviets
  • Lenin = head of the Council of People’s Commissars (Executive Committee)
  • Bolsheviks disbanded the Constituent Assembly
slide48

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

  • 1918-1922
  • Bolsheviks formed the Red Army
  • Led by Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
  • White Army – tsarists, Cadets, Mensheviks, and Social Revolutionaries
slide49

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

  • Bolshevik policies – “War Communism”
  • Nationalized key industries, allowed workers to run key industries
  • Ended Russia’s involvement in WWI – March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Bolsheviks united, supported by Red Army, ruthless
  • Foreign powers supported the White Army
  • White Army divided
slide50

USSR

  • 1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • Unique Party-State Dualism
  • Party – representation of the proletariat (CPSU) Communist Party of the Soviet Union
  • State – worked to carry out policies
  • Central Committee – several hundred top CPSU officials
  • Politburo – policy bureau – dozen men – decision making
slide51

MARXISM-LENINISM

  • Capitalism destroyed by a violent revolution
  • Socialist revolution possible in a backward country like Russia
  • Revolution determined by human leadership not historical laws
  • Highly disciplined workers’ party led by a dedicated elite of intellectuals
slide52

MARXISM-LENINISM

  • “Stop the War Now”, “All Power to the Soviets”, “Peace, Land, Bread”
  • NEP – New Economic Policy – capitalistic compromise
  • Peasants could sell extra grain for goods or profit
  • Kulaks – new class of wealthy peasants
  • Cheka – Secret Police
  • Single Party Dictatorship
slide53

SOCIAL CHANGES

  • Women – equality, divorce, birth control, abortion
  • Alexandra Kollontai (1872-1952) – Soviet Feminist sought to educate women
  • Komsomol – Communist Youth League – promote socialist values
  • Sergei Eisenstein – films Russia History
slide55

LEON TROTSKY

  • TROTSKY vs. STALIN
  • 1879-1940
  • Leader of the Red Army
  • “Permanent Revolution” - international
slide56

JOSEPH STALIN

  • 1878 –1953
  • “Man of Steel”
  • “Socialism in One Country”
  • General Secretary of the Communist Party
  • Preserved some revolutionary goals
  • No hereditary Czar, no privileged class, improved standard of living
  • New upper class – professionals, factory managers
slide57

JOSEPH STALIN

  • Departed from Communist ideology
  • Secret Police, Purge Trials (1936-1939), suppressed opposition, revived the military, territorial expansion, Russian Nationalism
  • 600,000 Old Bolsheviks
slide58

JOSEPH STALIN

  • 5 YEAR PLANS (1928)
  • Economic Growth – Heavy Industry
  • Propaganda – better life, pay differentials, incentives, cruel punishments
  • 2nd only to the U.S
  • Bureaucratic waste, errors, high production cost, poor quality, housing shortage, low standard of living, little investment capital
slide59

JOSEPH STALIN

  • “WORKER STATE” – right to employment, leisure time, annual paid vacations, social security, old-age, accident, sickness insurance, medical and hospital care
  • Labor Conditions? – lateness, absence, fined sent to Labor Camps
  • GULAG
slide60

JOSEPH STALIN

  • Collective Farms (1929)
  • Agricultural output
  • 25 Million Farmers
  • Forced farmers to pool their land, livestock, equipment
  • Kulaks refused – 1932 entire class eliminated – forced labor camps, or killed
  • Several Million Kulaks
  • Stalin’s policies – 18 Million
slide62

NIKITA KHRUSCHEV

  • (r. 1953-1964)
  • “Butcher of the Ukraine”
  • 1956 Secret Speech
  • De-Stalinization Process
  • Sputnik 1957
  • Forced out – Soviet missiles in Cuba
  • Failures – Industrial & Agricultural output
slide63

LEONID BREZHNEV

  • Brezhnev Doctrine
    • Justified Intervention
    • Czech. (1968), Afghanistan (1979)
  • Détente – “relaxation”
    • SALT I Treaties
  • Nixon (1972) Brezhnev (1973)
slide64

RUSSIA

  • Yuri Andropov (1982-1984)
  • Konstantin Chernenko (1984-1985)
  • Policies unchanged, sickly short-terms in office
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
slide65

GORBACHEV

  • Petestroika - “restructuring”
  • Glasnost – “openness”
  • RESULTS – decentralization of the economy, multi-party system, openness in press, cuts in military spending, revoked the Brezhnev Doctrine, withdrew troops from Afghanistan, improved relations with China, and U.S.
slide66

GORBACHEV

  • SUCCESS? Or FAILURE?
  • Inflation 191%
  • Food Shortages – Riots
  • Improved status for women, emphasis on education, religious toleration
slide67

BORIS YELTSIN

  • Protégé of Gorbachev
  • Saved and Ended Gorbachev’s reign
  • August 1991 Coup
  • Dec. 8, 1991 – CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Dec. 25, 1991 Gorbachev Resigned official end to Soviet Union
slide69

CIS

  • Commonwealth of Independent States
  • 12 States – Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia
  • Shared transportation, communication, security, shared military assets, common economic space
slide70

BORIS YELTSIN

  • Russian Federation’s first popularly elected President (1991)
  • Stagnating economy, hostile legislature, attempted coup, military debacle in Chechnya, quadruple by-pass surgery, served two terms
  • Resigned New Year’s Eve 1999
  • Appointed Prime Minister Vladimir Putin
slide71

VLADIMIR PUTIN

  • 1999-2008
  • REFORMER?
  • United Russian Party
  • Majority of seats in Duma
  • “Managed Democracy”
  • Increase in standard of living
  • Foreign investment, second leading exporter oil, growing middle class
  • Availability of Consumer goods
slide72

VLADIMIR PUTIN

  • AUTOCRAT?
  • Former K.G.B.
  • Power concentrated in his hands
  • Shut down independent TV stations
  • Rivals jailed
  • Alleged killing of opponents
  • Unfair elections
slide73

DIMITRY MEDVEDEV

  • 3rd and current President of the Russian Federation
  • Election March 2008 – 71.25% of the popular vote
  • Political Party – United Russia
slide74

Viktor Yuschenko

  • President of the Ukraine 2005
  • Orange Revolution
  • Presidential Election 2004
slide76

Alexander Litvinenko

  • Former Russian Spy
  • Critical of Russian Political Corruption
no single reform has ever been completed in russia assess the validity of this statement
“NO SINGLE REFORM HAS EVER BEEN COMPLETED IN RUSSIA”Assess the Validity of this statement