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Welcome to the Museum of The Korean War. Museum Entrance. Room Two. Room Three. Room One. Room Four. Room Five. Curator’s Offices. Curator’s Office. Rayven Moon .

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museum entrance

Welcome to the Museum of

The Korean War

Museum Entrance

Room Two

Room Three

Room One

Room Four

Room

Five

Curator’s

Offices

curator s office
Curator’s Office

Rayven Moon

Rayven Moon is a sophomore student at Clear Springs High school. She is enrolled in Mr.Collin’s Pre-Ap World History class.

Contact me at [0001039948@students.ccisd.net]

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Note: Virtual museums were first introduced by educators at Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed by Dr. Christy Keeler. View the Educational Virtual Museums website for more information on this instructional technique.

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Room 1

Room 1

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room 2

Room 2

Room 2

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room 3

Room 3

Room 3

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room 4

Room 4

Room 4

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room 5

Room 5

Room 5

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artifact 1 the korean war and the 38 th parallel
Artifact 1: The Korean War and the 38th Parallel

The Korean War began on June 25, 1950 at 4:30 am, when 75,000 North Korean soldiers crossed over the 38th parallel into South Korea to impose communism on its neighbor. The 38th parallel is 38 degrees north longitude and dates back to 1896. That was when Korea was first divided by foreign powers. The 38th parallel is the location of the demilitarized zone that separates North Korea and South Korea.

It's important in the Korean War because this where the countries were separated. This is also where the front line between the Communist and Allied forces were stabilized.

Swartout, Robert R., Jr. "Into the Breach at Pusan: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in the Korean War." The Historian 76.1 (2014): 117+. World History in Context. Web. 19 Apr. 2014.

"Conflict in the Koreas." Anderson Issues. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 2 harry s truman
Artifact 2: Harry S. Truman

“If we let Korea down,” President Harry Truman (1884-1972) said, “the Soviets will keep right on going and swallow up one after another.” The fight on the Korean peninsula was a symbol of the global struggle between east and west, good and evil. As the North Korean army pushed into Seoul, the South Korean capital, the United States readied its troops for a war against communism itself. By the end of the summer, President Truman and General Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), the commander in charge of the Asian theater, had decided on a new set of war aims. Now, for the Allies, the Korean War was an offensive one: It was a war to “liberate” the North from the communists.

"Korean War." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"America's War against the People of Korea: The Historical Record of US War Crimes." Global Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 3 the korean armistice agreement
Artifact 3:The Korean Armistice Agreement

The Korean Armistice Agreement was the longest negotiated armistice in history was negotiated over 2 years and 17 days. It consisted of 18 official copies and was tri-lingual. The agreement went into effect at 10 pm on July 27th, 1953 and was signed by US Army Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison, Jr., UN Command Delegate, North Korean Gen. Nam Il, and volunteers from the People’s Republic of China. This agreement ended the Korean War.

Kwak, Tae Yang. "Selling the Korean War: Propaganda, Politics, and Public Opinion, 1950-1953." Journal of World History 21.3 (2010): 558+. World History in Context. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 4 kim i l sung
Artifact 4: Kim IlSung

Kim II Sung (1912-94) was the dictatorial leader of North Korea from shortly after World War II until his death in 1994. As a young man, Kim led guerrilla forces against the Japanese imperial army until he was forced to flee Korea in the late 1930s. There is some debate about what he did next; the North Koreans claim that he organized the Anti-Japanese Guerilla Army in Manchuria, but other accounts suggest that he fought in the Russian Red Army. By the end of World War II, Kim had returned to the Korean peninsula along with Russian forces. Having become an ardent Communist, Kim went on to lead the first government in the North—the People's Democratic Republic of North Korea.

"Il Sung Kim." Newsmakers. Detroit: Gale, 1994. World History in Context. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"North Korea, Citizens of the Isolated Country :: History." North Korea, Citizens of the Isolated Country :: History. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 5 general douglas macarthur
Artifact 5: General Douglas MacArthur

In Korea, MacArthur organized a brilliant amphibious attack behind enemy lines at Inchon, nearly allowing the United States to win the war in the fall of 1950. However, MacArthur badly underestimated the threat of Chinese intervention, and was caught completely off-guard by the Chinese advance of November 1950. His forces thrown into retreat, MacArthur demanded a massive retaliation—possibly involving nuclear weapons—against China itself. President Truman denied his request, fearing such an escalation would lead to World War III.

"You're Fired! President Truman v. General MacArthur." : Process. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"Truman, Harry S." In Uebelhor, Tracy S. The Truman Years, Presidential Profiles. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2006. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=TTY400&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 6 the centurion
Artifact 6: The Centurion

The Centurion, a 67-ton tank with a 105 mm main gun, was introduced in 1945. The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-World War II period. It was a successful tank design, with upgrades, for many decades. It first entered combat with the British Army in the Korean War in 1950, in support of the UN forces. It was also the most powerful tank to see action in the Korean War.

"Centurion (A41) - History, Specs and Pictures - Military Armor." Centurion (A41). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Genovese Michael A. "North Korea." In Genovese, Michael A. Encylopedia of the American Presidency, Revised Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2009. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=EOAPR0469&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 8 bodo league and bodo league massacre
Artifact 8: Bodo League and Bodo League Massacre

Under the leadership of President Syngman Rhee, a group called the “Bodo League” was born. The League’s mission in the public eye was “re-education” of suspected Communists or North Korean sympathizers in the Republic of Korea. The Bodo League massacre was a massacre and war crime against communists and suspected sympathizers that occurred in the summer of 1950 during the Korean War. Estimates of the death toll vary. According to Prof. Kim Dong-Choon, Commissioner of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, at least 100,000 people were executed on suspicion of supporting communism; others estimate 200,000 deaths. The massacre was wrongly blamed on the communists for decades.

"Death Camps on the Korean Peninsula." The Crimes of Colonialism. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.“

Korean War (1950–1953)." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: War. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. World History in Context. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 7 syngman rhee
Artifact 7: Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee (1875-1965) was an American-educated Korean exile who returned to his country to become the first president of South Korea in 1948. A fierce anticommunist but also an unpopular autocrat, Rhee led his nation—rather ineffectually—throughout the Korean War. As a young man, Rhee was imprisoned from 1897-1904 for his activism in support of internal reforms in Korea. Following his release, Rhee traveled to the United States, attended Princeton, and became the first Korean student to receive a PhD in America. He then returned home and participated in the Korean rebellion against the Japanese occupation in 1919. With American backing Rhee was elected first President of Korea, which he ruled with a strong hand for twelve critical years. He was forced to resign on 26th April 1960 over the results of the disputed Vice Presidential election, which was fraudulent in favor of Rhee's apparent successor, with 90% of the vote claimed.

"Syngman Rhee." Syngman Rhee. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Axelrod, Alan. "Korean War." Eyewitness to America's Wars, Vol. 2. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2011. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=EAW12&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 9 sergeant reckless
Artifact 9: Sergeant Reckless

Sergeant Reckless, a horse that held official rank in the United States military, was a mare of Mongolian horse breeding. Out of a race horse dam, she was purchased in October 1952 for $250 from a Korean stable boy at the Seoul racetrack who needed money to buy an artificial leg for his sister. She served in numerous combat actions during the Korean War, carrying supplies and ammunition, and was also used to evacuate wounded. Learning each supply route after only a couple of trips, she often traveled to deliver supplies to the troops on her own, without benefit of a handler.

"Sergeant Reckless: The Korean War Horse." EQUINE Ink. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Roberts, Priscilla. "Korean War, causes of U.S. intervention." In Tucker, Spencer C., gen. ed. Encyclopedia of American Military History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=EMHII0165&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 10 general francis townsend dodd
Artifact 10: General Francis Townsend Dodd

Francis Townsend Dodd was a U.S. Army brigadier general held hostage by North Korean POWs during a camp uprising when he was commander of the United Nations-administered prisoner-of-war camps on Koje Island during the Korean War. The incident led to a North Korean propaganda victory after the Army was forced to make embarrassing admissions to secure Dodd's release. Dodd and others involved in the incident subsequently suffered career-ending damage to their reputations. This incident was one of the most embarrassing incidents during the Korean War.

"Francis Dodd." Francis Dodd. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"Townsend Foster Dodd." Townsend Foster Dodd. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 11 the sinchon massacre
Artifact 11: The Sinchon Massacre

The Sinchon Massacre was a mass murder of civilians, communist sympathizers and North Korean loyalists in the autumn of 1950, in or near the town of Sinchon, during the outbreak of the Korean War. Sinchon is currently located in South Hwanghae province, North Korea. North Korean sources claim that approximately 35,000 people were killed by American military forces and other supporters during the course of 52 days, which would have been about a quarter of the population of the county. Korean sources claim that approximately 35,000 people were killed by American military forces and other supporters during the course of 52 days.

"Sue Wombat." : Journal. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"John Foster Dulles Travels to Korea on the Eve of the Korean War." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=WPA0488&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014)

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artifact 12 pablo picasso and massacre in korea
Artifact 12: Pablo Picasso and Massacre in Korea

Massacre in Korea is a 1951 expressionistic painting by Pablo Picasso which is seen as a criticism of American intervention in the Korean War. It depicts the 1950 Sinchon Massacre, an act of mass killing carried out by North Koreans, South Koreans, and American forces in the town of Sinchon located in South Hwanghae Province, North Korea. Although the actual cause of the murders in Sinchon is in question, Massacre in Korea appears to depict them as civilians being killed by anti-Communist forces.

"Pablo Picasso." Massacre in Korea, 1951 by. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Schwartz, Richard A. "The Cold War Settles In: 1951." The 1950s, An Eyewitness History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=EH50SEssay03&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 13 the battle of taejon
Artifact 13: The Battle of Taejon

The Battle of Taejon (14–21 July 1950) was an early battle between American and North Korean forces during the Korean War. Forces of the United States Army attempted to defend the headquarters of the 24th Infantry Division. The 24th Infantry Division was overwhelmed by numerically superior forces of the Korean People's Army (KPA) at the major city and transportation hub of Taejon. The 24th Infantry Division's regiments were already exhausted from the previous two weeks of delaying actions to stem the advance of the KPA. he entire 24th Division gathered to make a final stand around Taejon, holding a line along the Kum River to the east of the city. Hampered by lack of communication, equipment and shortage of heavy weapons to match KPA firepower, the American forces being outnumbered, ill-equipped and untrained were pushed back from the river bank after several days before fighting an intense urban battle to defend the city. After a fierce three-day struggle, the Americans withdrew.

"Korean War Review." Korean War Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

"Harry S. Truman, presidency of." In Uebelhor, Tracy S. The Truman Years, Presidential Profiles. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2006. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=TTY001&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 14 dogfights in the korean war
Artifact 14: Dogfights in the Korean War

A dogfight, or dog fight, is a form of engagement between fighter aircraft; in particular, combat of maneuver at short range, where each side is aware of the other's presence. Dogfighting first appeared during World War I, shortly after the invention of the airplane. Until at least 1992, it was a component in every major war, despite beliefs after World War II that increasingly greater speeds and longer range weapons would make dogfighting obsolete. The world’s first all-jet dogfight occurred ruing the Korean War on September 8, 1950.

"Axis History Forum." • Korean War Aces. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Canby, Courtlandt, and David S. Lenberg. "Korea." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE39&Details.aspx&iPin= EHP4562&SingleRecord=True

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artifact 15 the mobile army surgical hospital
Artifact 15:The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) refers to a United States Army medical unit serving as a fully functional hospital in a combat area of operations. The units were first established in August 1945, and were deployed during the Korean War and later conflicts. The U.S. Army deactivated the last MASH unit on February 16, 2006. The successor to the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital is the Combat Support Hospital. MASH (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) units were first used in the Korean War. Their aim was to be closer to the combat zones to save more soldiers’ lives. This medical unit played a important role in saving lives and supporting Korean troops.

Lewis, Adrian R. "Korean War." In Tucker, Spencer C., gen. ed. Encyclopedia of American Military History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=EMHII0164&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 16 the battle of chosin reservoir
Artifact 16: The Battle of Chosin Reservoir

The Battle of Chosin Reservoir, also known as the Chosin Reservoir Campaign or the Changjin Lake Campaign, was a decisive battle in the Korean War fought between November 27 to December 13, 1950. Shortly after the People's Republic of China entered the conflict, the People's Volunteer Army interred the northeastern part of North Korea and surprised the US X Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area. The Baffle of Chosin Reservoir was one of the most brutal battles of the Korean War. This battle made it different from other fierce fighting. It was the intensely cold and bitter weather. Temperatures dropped to -54° F. One survivor of the battle designed a bumper sticker that read: “Once Upon a Time Hell Froze Over. We Were There.”

Allan R. "Battle of the Chosin Reservoir (Korean War)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 17 m20 super bazooka
Artifact 17: M20 “Super Bazooka”

The M20 "Super Bazooka" gave the foot soldier a portable anti-tank weapon, as well as a super bunker-clearer. Weighing only 12 pounds, it fired a shaped charge which concentrated the rocket's energy in a small area, and was effective against up to eleven inches of armor at a range of almost 900 yards. In Korea, that was worth taking to the dance. During the first few weeks of the Korean War, the U.S. rushed a new weapon into service to provide an effective counter to North Korean armor: M-20 bazooka. It was capable of penetrating North Korean armor.

"Super Bazooka: M20 3.5in Rocket Launcher." Super Bazooka: M20 3.5in Rocket Launcher. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"UAE seized North Korean ship with weapons." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 18 the battle of kapyong
Artifact 18: The Battle of Kapyong

The Battle of Kapyong, 22–25 April 1951, also known as the Battle of Jiaping, was fought during the Korean War between United Nations (UN) forces—primarily Australian and Canadian—and the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army. The fighting occurred during the Chinese Spring Offensive and saw the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade establish blocking positions in the Kapyong Valley, on a key route south to the capital, Seoul. . As thousands of South Korean soldiers began to withdraw through the valley, the Chinese infiltrated the brigade position under the cover of darkness, and assaulted the Australians on Hill 504 during the evening and into the following day.

"Out in the Cold: Australia's Involvement in the Korean War." Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"Harry S. Truman Hints at the Possibility of Using Atomic Weapons in the Korean War." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=WPA0494&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 19 cause of the korean war
Artifact 19: Cause of the Korean War

The USA went to war in Korea for three reasons. The first reason was the ‘Domino theory’. Tactics in eastern Europe was not the only place where Communists were coming to power. In the Far East, too, they were getting powerful – China turned Communist in 1949. Truman believed that, if one country fell to Communism, then others would follow, like a line of dominoes. He was worried that, if Korea fell, the next ‘domino’ would be Japan, which was very important for American trade. The second reason was just to try to undermine Communism. President Truman believed that capitalism, freedom ,and the American way of life were in danger of being overrun by Communism. The Truman Doctrine had been one of ‘containment’ – stopping the Communists gaining any more territory. Finally, Truman realized the USA was in a competition for world domination with the USSR. By supporting South Korea, America was able to fight Communism without directly attacking Russia.

"Why Did the Korean War Break out in 1950." Why Did the Korean War Break out in 1950. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"Remembering the Korean War, 60 Years Ago." Boston.com. The New York Times, 23 June 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 20 effects of the korean war
Artifact 20: Effects of the Korean War

After the Korean War, there were many long term effects that were hard live through. Korea is still two different countries. Korea is divided by the 38th parallel. Many families are still separated because of the war. The people in North Korea has to suffer because Communism. Communism makes a lot of limits for the people. Their freedom is very controlled so they don't have the freedom of press, religion, or speech. Though it failed to unify the country, the United States achieved its larger goals, including preserving and promoting NATO interests and defending Japan. The war also resulted in a divided Korea and complicated any possibility for accommodation between the United States and China. The Korean War served to encourage the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia.

Madison. "Why the Korean War Still Matters." CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 21 korean war statistics
Artifact 21: Korean War Statistics

The Korean War started June 25, 1950. It lasted 3 years, approximately the average length for a war (3.00 years). The high death toll estimate is 3,000,000, which is 215 times higher than the average war death count (13,929). There were 6.8 million American men and women who served during the Korean War period, June 27,1950 to January 31, 1955. There are an estimated 3.9 million Korean War veterans in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, down about 21 percent from the nearly 2 million Korean War veterans in 1990. An estimated 86,300 Korean War veterans are women, making up 7 percent of the estimated number of all female veterans.

"Koreastats." Koreastats. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"Korean Children during the Korean War." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

ItemID=WE52&iPin=AHI0767&SingleRecord=True (accessed April 22, 2014).

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artifact 22 the korean demilitarized zone
Artifact 22: The Korean Demilitarized Zone

The Korean Demilitarized Zone is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula that serves as a buffer zone between North and South Korea. The DMZ is a de-facto border barrier, which runs along the 38th parallel north. The DMZ cuts the Korean Peninsula roughly in half, crossing the 38th parallel on an angle, with the west end of the DMZ lying south of the parallel and the east end lying north of it. It was created as part of the Korean Armistice Agreement between North Korea, the People's Republic of China, and the United Nations Command forces in 1953.

Szoldra, Paul. "The Border Area Between North And South Korea May Be The Tensest Place On Earth." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 02 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"The Incredible Isolation of North Korea - In One Map." RocketNews24 RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

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artifact 23 economic impact of the korean war
Artifact 23: Economic impact of the Korean War

The impact of the Korean War on the economy of the United States refers to the ways in which the American economy was affected by the Korean experience from 1950 to 1953. While the cost of the Korean War was less significant than that of World War II, it still changed the structure of the American growth as a result of its financing. The Korean War boosted GDP growth through government spending, which in turn constrained investment and consumption. While taxes were raised significantly to finance the war, the Federal Reserve followed an anti-inflationary policy. Though there was a large increase in prices at the outset of the war, price and wage controls ultimately stabilized prices by the end of the war.

"Korean War Educator: Topics - Cost of the Korean War." Korean War Educator: Topics - Cost of the Korean War. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

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back wall artifact the forgotten war
Back Wall Artifact: “The Forgotten War”

Though some insist it should be referred to as the "Korean Conflict" or a police action because the participants never officially declared "war," there are few veterans who would disagree that the fighting in Korea between 1950 and 1953 was as bitter as any war. In recent years, the Korean War has been called "The Forgotten War," because it has been overshadowed by the more immediate memories of Vietnam, Desert Storm and the fiftieth anniversary commemorations of World War II. With four million casualties, however, the war that President Truman declared a testing ground in the conflict between communism and democracy has left an indelible imprint on the history of the twentieth century.

"US Navy Art Collection Main Page." US Navy Art Collection Main Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

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