Australia and the aborigines
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Australia and the Aborigines. The History of the Aborigines. Their background. The Aborigines are one of the oldest people (40 000 years ago) They descend from European and Asian populations

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Their background
Their background

  • The Aborigines are one of the oldest people (40 000 years ago)

  • They descend from European and Asian populations

  • They don’t form an unique tribe but they are composed of several groups with their own language and culture (500 different tribes at least)


The english colonisation i
The English colonisation I

  • The colonisation began in 1788

  • The English wanted to “civilise” the Aborigines, I.e. that they abandon their traditions and culture in favour of the English ones, especially the Christian religion

  • The colony was used in the beginning as a prison for English criminal offender


The english colonisation ii
The English colonisation II

  • The English expelled the Aborigines from their home land and their hunting grounds

  • The Aborigines got infected by unknown diseases and began to drink

  • This led to the massive extinction of some tribes

  • 1831: martial law declared in response of violent acts perpetuated in Tasmania


The evolution of aboriginal rights
The evolution of Aboriginal rights

  • From 1906 until 1969, metis children were taken away from their home to be educated as European children

  • The fascism increased, with this slogan “White Australia” that meant Australia for white people

  • 1962: Aborigines obtained the right of vote

  • 1971: creation of the Aboriginal flag

  • 1976:Aboriginal Land Rights Act that gave some land back to the Aborigines so they could live like their ancestors


Aboriginal culture
Aboriginal Culture

  • Oldest living cultural history in the world

  • Kept culture alive by oral teaching methods

  • Own set of laws and values


Aboriginals and the land
Aboriginals and the land

  • Semi-nomadic tribes – exceptional tracking skills

  • The land is the core of their spirituality

  • Known for Varied artistic expressions


Australia and the aborigines

We cultivated our land, but in a way different from the white man. We endeavoured to live with the land; they seemed to live off it. I was taught to preserve, never to destroy.”

  • Tom Dystra [aboriginal]


Aboriginal cultural issues
Aboriginal cultural issues

  • Conflictwithstructured time oriented routines

  • Low confidence of written communication

  • Conflictswith service providers

    • Position of authority

    • Constant eye contact and questioning

    • Concerned of stigmas in society


Indigenous australians and their situation today
Indigenous Australians and Their Situation Today

  • Life today for Indigenous Australians is much different to life before European settlement.

  • European settlement has had a huge impact.

  • Aborigines struggle to adapt to the Australian lifestyle, health care system, education system and employment opportunities and are left to fight for traditional and cultural land ownerships rights.


Lifestyle and living standards
LifestyleandLiving Standards

  • Most Indigenous people little in towns and cities throughout Australia, but some still live in the remote parts of the country.

  • Poverty in these areas is equal to the worst in the world.

  • Harmful use of alcohol has played a part in this.

  • The Australian Government has said something must be done to battle against the misuse of alcohol.


Health
Health

  • Indigenous Australians have high rates of poor health for a number reasons, including remoteness, lack of trust towards the medical industry and negative social attitudes.

  • Community-controlled health services have been put in place.


Education and employment
Education and employment

  • Indigenous education is seen as a major concern with low rates of attendance, retention and higher education.

  • Financial assistance has been provided by the government as an incentive.

  • A negative view on education has also lead to high unemployment rates.

  • New skills need to be taught and social attitudes need to be changed to counteract unemployment and ensure it doesn’t become a condition that is continually passed through generations.


Land ownership
Land ownership

  • ‘Terra nullius’- “no mans land”

  • Mabo v Queensland (No. 2) 1992: the High Court recognized native title in Australia for the first time, meaning the Aboriginal people were living here long before anyone else and so have land rights based on a cultural and traditional connection with the land.

  • However, there are still many challenges that they must face, including proving that they still retain a connection with the land and have maintained their ancestral customs and traditions.



Preamble
Preamble

  • Definition of Indigenous Australians and criteria that must be met.

  • Recognised as the first and true people of Australia.


Chapter one the rights of the indigenous australians
Chapter One – The Rights of the Indigenous Australians

  • Article 1: HumanRights

  • Article 2: Recognition of Cultural Heritage

  • Article 3: Right to be Consulted

  • Article 4: The Right to Native Title

  • Article 5: The Right to Practice Religion