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COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH. What is Mental Health?. The emotional and social well-being of an individual, including one’s psychological resources for dealing with the day-to-day problems of life. Good Mental Health is the Ability to:. Function under adversity Change or adapt to changes

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what is mental health
What is Mental Health?
  • The emotional and social well-being of an individual, including one’s psychological resources for dealing with the day-to-day problems of life.
good mental health is the ability to
Good Mental Health is the Ability to:
  • Function under adversity
  • Change or adapt to changes
  • Maintain control over one’s tension and anxiety
  • Find more satisfaction in giving than receiving
  • Show consideration for others
  • Curb hate and guild
  • Love others
classification of mental disorders
Classification of Mental Disorders
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth addition

    • Anxiety Disorders
    • Childhood Disorders
    • Eating Disorders
    • Mood Disorders
    • Personality Disorders
    • Psychotic Disorders
    • Substance-Related Disorders
    • Other Disorders
causes of mental disorders
Causes of Mental Disorders
  • Birth Defects
    • Inherited mental deficiency
    • Biologically caused mental retardation
  • Physical Impairment
    • Neurotransmitter failures related to psychotic episodes at puberty
    • Brain trauma due to accident
  • Psychological Causes
    • Being reared in economically deprived conditions
    • Parental abuse
mental illness in america
Mental Illness in America
  • Four to five million adults have serious mental illness (SMI)
  • 15.4% of the U.S. population 18 and older have had one incident of mental illness in the past 30 days
  • 18.2 adults per 1,000 had experienced an episode of SMI in the past year
social indicators of mental illness
Social Indicators of Mental Illness
  • There are approximate 30,000 suicides in the U.S. yearly
  • In 1991 the number 2 and number 3 leading cause of death among 15-24 year olds was homicide
  • In 1990 the divorce rate (4.7/1,000) was nearly half the marriage rate (9.8/1,000)
  • 4.5 million women of childbearing age were current users of illegal substances
  • 1,383 children died from abuse or neglect in 1991
stress a contemporary mental health problem
Stress: A Contemporary Mental Health Problem
  • Stress is one’s psychological and physiological response to stressors
  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) A three stage response to stressors
    • Alarm reaction
    • Resistance
    • Exhaustion

Fight or Flight

mental health in america before world war i
Mental Health in America Before World War I
  • Care provided by families or private caretakers
  • Those not cared for in the home were sent to the poor houses or almshouses
  • In the late 19th century as the number of people increased in the poor houses and almshouses attempts were made to separate people by type of disability
  • In 1851 Dr. Thomas Bond visited the famous Bedlam Hospital in England and founded Pennsylvania Hospital the first institution in America for the care of the mentally ill.
    • Blood letting
    • Blistering
    • Emetics
    • Warm and cold baths
the moral treatment era for the well to do
The Moral Treatment Era for the Well-To-Do
  • William Tuke, and English Quaker, established moral treatment
    • Mental illness was caused by:
      • Infidelity
      • Being overworked
      • Envy
      • Gluttony
      • Drinking
      • Sexual excesses
  • Treated in an asylum with:
  • Rest
  • Light food
  • Exercise
  • Fresh air
  • Amusements
the state hospitals
The State Hospitals
  • Institutions became a place for those society did not want to have around
    • Prisoners
    • Orphans
    • Wayward youths
    • The mentally ill
  • The rationalization was that with small numbers of patients proper care could be provided
  • The numbers of patients grew very rapidly
  • In time the institutions became human warehouses
the mental hygiene movement
The Mental Hygiene Movement
  • Occurred during the first few decades of the twentieth century
  • Believed that early detection treatment was key to curing mental illness
  • Wanted to address the problem at a community level
  • Established local mental hospitals (Bellevue in NY)
  • This movement did nothing to address the State Hospital problem
  • By the 1940s state mental institutions had grown to nearly a half-million
mental health care after world war ii
Mental Health Care After World War II
  • Psychiatrists came out of the war with new techniques called crisis management
  • In 1946 the National Institute of Mental Health was formed
    • Fostered research
    • Supported training
    • Improved clinical services
  • Discharging of patients from state hospitals and the relocating them in less crowded community settings
    • In 1955 558,922 resident patients
    • In 1970 337,619 resident patients
    • In 1980 150,000 resident patients
    • In 1990 110,000 resident patients
deinstitutionalization forces
Deinstitutionalization Forces
  • Economics
    • States needed money for roads, education and welfare
    • There was a new profit motive to provide services for the mentally ill
  • Idealism: Keep people out of institutions
  • Legal considerations
    • Federal Legislation: Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled (APTD)
    • Welfare money could now be paid to discharged mental patients
  • Antipsychotic drugs
    • Chlorpromazine
    • Thorazine
community mental health centers
Community Mental Health Centers
  • A Presidential commission recommended replacing all mental hospitals with community based mental health centers (1961)
  • Seen as secondary and tertiary prevention
  • The federal government became partially responsible for mental health care in the U.S.
  • Reduced budgets during the Regan years left community mental health centers understaffed and under utilized