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Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Founder member of Die Br ücke. Cubism (pre-1914). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) rejection of traditional perspective, emphasis on flat, two-dimensional surface of picture plane dismantling and analysing of form geometric shapes later, three-dimensional collage.

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cubism pre 1914
Cubism (pre-1914)
  • Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
    • rejection of traditional perspective, emphasis on flat, two-dimensional surface of picture plane
    • dismantling and analysing of form
    • geometric shapes
    • later, three-dimensional collage
dada 1916 1922
Dada (1916-1922)
  • Why “Dada”?
    • term chosen at random from German-French dictionary by Romanian Tristan Tzara“
    • Dada” is French for “hobby-horse”, but also said to be child’s first utterance
    • marks a new beginning
  • Origins & Principles
    • foundedFebruary 1916 in a Zürich bar, “Cabaret Voltaire”, by Tzara, Hugo Ball and Hans (Jean) Arp
    • artistic and literary nihilistic reaction to militarism and carnage of World War I
    • aimed to shock; often absurd and incomprehensible. Attacked bourgeois dishonesty and hypocrisy
    • young poets, artists and musicians read, exhibited and played their work
  • Development
    • “cabaret Voltaire” initiiative folded after only 6 months, but ideas of Dada spread to France, German and USA
    • challenged established art forms and the rule of logic by synthesis of the primitive, the absurd, the banal and modern technology
    • nonsense poetry, collage, photomontage
neue sachlichkeit 1920s
Neue Sachlichkeit (1920s)
  • New Objectivity, social realism
  • moved away from subjectivity (and at times incomprehensibility) of Expressionism
  • sought to depict the excesses of Weimar culture with blood-curdling detachment
  • Leading figures
    • Georg Grosz
    • Otto Dix
    • Max Beckmann
georg grosz 1893 1959
Georg Grosz (1893-1959)
  • formal training at Royal Academy, Dresden
  • became Dadaist then leading member of Neue Sachlichkeit movement after World War I
  • fiercely satirical drawings (Ecce Homo, 1922) attacking post-War conditions
  • early opponent of Hitler
  • went to USA 1932, became US citizen
  • featured in Nazi ‘Entartete Kunst’ exhibition of 1937
otto dix 1891 1969
Otto Dix (1891-1969)
  • appalled by brutality of World War I trench warfare (Krieg, 50 etchings, 1924)
  • disgusted by excesses and social injustice of postwar Germany
  • leading member of Neue Sachlichkeit movement
  • featured in Nazi ‘Entartete Kunst’ exhibition of 1937