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10. Interest Groups. Video: The Big Picture. 10. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch10_Interest_Groups_Seg1_v2.html. 10. Learning Objectives. Describe the role of interest groups in American politics. 10.1.

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slide2

10

Interest Groups

video the big picture
Video: The Big Picture

10

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch10_Interest_Groups_Seg1_v2.html

slide4

10

Learning Objectives

Describe the role of interest groups in American politics

10.1

Compare and contrast the theories of pluralism, elitism, and hyperpluralism

10.2

slide5

10

Learning Objectives

Analyze the factors that make some interest groups more successful than others in the political arena

10.3

Assess the four basic strategies that interest groups use to try to shape policy

10.4

slide6

10

Learning Objectives

Identify the various types of interest groups and their policy concerns

10.5

Evaluate how well Madison’s ideas for controlling the influence of interest groups have worked in practice

10.6

video the basics
Video: The Basics

10

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_InterestGroups_v2.html

role of interest groups
Role of Interest Groups

10.1

  • Interest groups pursue policy goals
  • Different from political parties
      • Do not run candidates
      • Policy specialists, not generalists
  • 25,000 interest groups
  • Technology aids lobbying
slide9

10.1

10.1 How many interest groups are there in the United States?

5,000

25,000

100,000

50,000

slide10

10.1

10.1 How many interest groups are there in the United States?

5,000

25,000

100,000

50,000

video in context
Video: In Context

10.1

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_InterestGroups_v2.html

theories of interest group politics
Theories of Interest Group Politics

10.2

  • Pluralism
  • Elitism
  • Hyperpluralism
pluralism
Pluralism

Group theory of politics

Groups link people and government

Groups compete

No one group likely to become dominant

Groups play by the rules of the game

Groups weak in one resource can use another

Concessions

Some groups stronger than others

All interests do not get equal hearing

10.2

elitism
Elitism

Real power held by a few

78% of Americans share this view

Interlocking directorates

Multinational corporations

Lobbying benefits the few at the expense of the many

10.2

video in the real world
Video: In the Real World

10.2

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_InterestGroups_v2.html

hyperpluralism
Hyperpluralism

Interest group liberalism

Groups out of control

Government tries to appease all of them

Budgets, programs, regulations expand

Iron triangles

Contradictory and confusing policy results

10.2

slide17

10.2

10.2 Which theory of interest group politics views interest groups positively?

Elitism

Hyperpluralism

Pluralism

None of the above

slide18

10.2

10.2 Which theory of interest group politics views interest groups positively?

Elitism

Hyperpluralism

Pluralism

None of the above

what makes an interest group successful
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?

10.3

  • Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups
  • Intensity
  • Financial Resources
slide20
Smaller groups have advantage

Potential group

Actual group

Collective good

Free-rider problem

Selective benefits

10.3

Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups

intensity
Intensity

Psychological advantage

Single-issue groups

On the rise

Dislike compromise

Abortion

10.3

financial resources
Financial Resources

System is biased toward wealthy

2008 federal elections cost $5 billion

Donations lead to access

But $$$ does not always lead to lobbying success

Other side contributes, too

10.3

slide23

10.3

10.3 Why does money not always lead to lobbying success?

Other side can also make contributions

Campaign contributions are too restricted to make a significant difference

Most groups cannot afford to buy politicians

Most politicians refuse to accept interest group contributions

slide24

10.3

10.3 Why does money not always lead to lobbying success?

Other side can also make contributions

Campaign contributions are too restricted to make a significant difference

Most groups cannot afford to buy politicians

Most politicians refuse to accept interest group contributions

how groups try to shape policy
How Groups Try to Shape Policy

10.4

  • Lobbying
  • Electioneering
  • Litigation
  • Going Public
lobbying
Lobbying

Two types of lobbyists

Full-time employee

Temporary employee

Often former legislators

Why do Congressmen listen to lobbyists?

Lobbyists provide specialized expertise

Lobbyists help with political & campaign strategy

Lobbyists provide ideas

10.4

slide27

10.4

FIGURE 10.1: Industries’ big spenders on lobbying, 2009-2011

slide28

10.4

NRA

electioneering
Electioneering

Aiding candidates financially

Getting out the vote

PACs

$5,000 limit in primary and general election

Mainly support incumbents

Should PACs be eliminated?

10.4

explore interest groups can interest groups buy public policy
Explore Interest Groups: Can Interest Groups Buy Public Policy?

10.4

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_edwards_mpslgia_16/pex/pex10.html

litigation
Litigation

Suing for enforcement

Environmental regulations

Civil rights groups – 1950s

Amicus curiae briefs

Class action lawsuits

10.4

going public
Going Public

Public opinion influences policy makers

Mobilize public opinion

Public relations

10.4

slide33

10.4

Interest group ad

slide34

10.4

10.4 On what tactic do interest groups rely to influence policy when Congress is unsympathetic?

Lobbying

Litigation

Electioneering

Going public

slide35

10.4

10.4 On what tactic do interest groups rely to influence policy when Congress is unsympathetic?

Lobbying

Litigation

Electioneering

Going public

explore the simulation you are a lobbyist
Explore the Simulation: You Are a Lobbyist

10.4

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media_1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=16

types of interest groups
Types of Interest Groups

10.5

  • Economic interests
  • Environmental interests
  • Equality interests
  • Consumer and other public interest lobbies
economic interests
Economic Interests

Labor

Unions

Closed shop versus “right-to-work”

10.5

slide39

10.5

Wisconsin collective bargaining fight

economic interests1
Economic Interests

Business

Dominate lobbying and PACs

Business interests not monolithic

Policy differences among industries

10.5

slide41

10.5

FIGURE 10.2: How corporate PACs have shifted toward the majority party

environmental interests
Environmental Interests

Sprang up since 1970

More than 10,000 groups with $2.9 billion revenue

Profound policy impact

Influential due to numbers, not money

10.5

slide43

10.5

Save the polar bear

equality interests
Equality Interests

Fourteenth Amendment guarantees

Minorities

NAACP/Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Social welfare policies

Women

National Organization for Women (NOW)

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

10.5

consumer and other public interest lobbies
Consumer and Other Public Interest Lobbies

Policies in the public interest

Collective goods

What is the public interest?

10.5

video thinking like a political scientist
Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist

10.5

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_InterestGroups_v2.html

slide47

10.5

10.5 Which interest groups are the best funded?

Economic groups

Environmental groups

Consumer groups

Women’s rights groups

slide48

10.5

10.5 Which interest groups are the best funded?

Economic groups

Environmental groups

Consumer groups

Women’s rights groups

understanding interest groups
Understanding Interest Groups

10.6

  • Interest Groups and Democracy
  • Interest Groups and the Scope of Government
interest groups and democracy
Interest Groups and Democracy

Does pluralism prevail?

Growth in number of interest groups

Less clout for any one group

Interest group corruption?

Business PACs

Wealthy groups dominate

Gridlock?

10.6

interest groups and the scope of government
Interest Groups and the Scope of Government

Individualistic and associational

Difficult to reduce spending

Vicious circle

Groups lead to policy

Policy prompts new groups to form

10.6

slide52

10.6

10.6 What do hyperpluralists see as a problem with the proliferation of interest groups?

They do not see a problem with large numbers of groups

They think too many groups competing will lead to policy gridlock

They believe that a few groups will triumph over all the others

None of the above

slide53

10.6

10.6 What do hyperpluralists see as a problem with the proliferation of interest groups?

They do not see a problem with large numbers of groups

They think too many groups competing will lead to policy gridlock

They believe that a few groups will triumph over all the others

None of the above

discussion question
Discussion Question

10

What are the three main theories of

interest group politics? Which theory do

you think provides the most accurate

explanation for how interest groups interact

with government in the U.S. today?

video so what
Video: So What?

10

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch10_Interest_Groups_Seg6_v2.html

slide56

10

  • Further Review:
  • On MyPoliSciLab
  • Listen to the Chapter
  • Study and Review the Flashcards
  • Study and Review the Practice Tests