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Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
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Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools

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  1. Response to Intervention:Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention Georgia Department of Education Division for Special Education Services and Supports 1870 Twin Towers East Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools

  2. One key question determines when, where, & how to intervene. Is it the Fish or the Water? Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Colorado

  3. The Prevention/Intervention Triangle 80% able academic & emotional learners Intensive Intervention: Evidence-based interventions that are comprehensive, coordinated, interagency supported, culturally competent, family focused, of high quality, and sustain help 5% Evaluate Effects 15% Early Intervention: Provide proven structured and targeted remedial academic & mental/emotional support to students placed at-risk Primary Prevention(School-wide): Promote academic & mental/emotional wellness for all students through: family involvement, positive school climate, social skills, teacher training, individualized instruction, teamconsultation, collaborative problem solving Adapted from: Dwyer, K. & Osher, D. (2000) Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide. Washington DC: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, American Institutes for Research. (page 3)

  4. A New Era in Special Education Of those with SLD, 80% are there simply because they have not learned how to read. Thus, many children identified for special education- up to 40%- are there because they were not taught to read. Few children placed in special education close the achievement gap to a point where they can read and learn like their peers. President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education’s Report: A new Era: Revitalizing Special Education for Children and Their Families. (July 1, 2002). GADOE, 2007

  5. Embracing a More Proactive Model • Problem solving model and prereferral intervention is best practice for children with learning difficulties. (Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale, 2005) • It represents an opportunity to provide early intervention and/or pre-referral services to • Reduce inappropriate referral and identification • Establish a prevention model for all students – no more wait to fail • Reduce the over identification of minority students • Provide data that are relevant to instruction • Promote shared responsibility and collaboration (NJCLD – June 2005) • Represents a method for assessing the “adequate opportunity for learning” exclusion present in IDEA 2004 GADOE, 2007

  6. RtI in Georgia: Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention What is a Pyramid of Intervention? GADOE, 2007

  7. TIER 4 SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION/LEARNING Targeted students participate in: -Specialized programs -Adapted content, methodology, or instructional delivery -GPS access/extension TIER 3: SST DRIVEN INSTRUCTION/LEARNING Targeted students participate in: -Individual assessment -Tailored interventions to respond to their needs -Frequent formative assessments -Consideration for specially designed instruction only when data indicates a need (e.g. gifted or special education services) • TIER 2: • NEEDS BASED INSTRUCTION/LEARNING: • STANDARD INTERVENTION PROTOCOLS • Targeted students participate in instruction that: • -Is different from Tier 1 • Uses established intervention protocols • Provides enhanced opportunities for extended learning • -Uses flexible, small groups • -Includes more frequent progress monitoring • -Addresses needs in all developmental domains (academic, • communication/language, social etc.) • TIER 1 • STANDARDS BASED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION/LEARNING • All students participate in instruction that is: • -In the general education classroom • Standards-based • Differentiated • Evidenced-based • Guided by progress monitoring & balanced assessment • -Planned to address all developmental domains (academic, • communication/language, social etc.) STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS Georgia Department of Education Offices of Curriculum and Instruction and Teacher/Student Support

  8. Old Way Student has difficulty we: • Refer them to SST • Possibly have three SST meetings • Wait for the student To Fail without providing intense interventions • Refer On To Special Education evaluation GADOE, 2007

  9. Pyramid of Interventions Way • Being Proactive • No More Wait to Fail- intense interventions provided earlier on to struggling students • General Education can Help All Students • No more Gray area- even students that “Don’t Qualify” will have instructional supports available • Making Intervention Really and Truly Work • Most Pre-referral interventions are based on a checklist- not based on student needs identified through data analysis • Reducing Disproportionality and Over-identification • Students with intrinsic, lifelong disabilities will be served by special education placement • Looking at Instruction as a factor • Instructional Casualties are Not LD GADOE, 2007

  10. Georgia’s model: Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention • Tiers of support for students who are struggling with: • Academics • Communication/language deficits • Appropriate school behavior/social skills • Provides assistance to any struggling student GADOE, 2007

  11. What makes the Pyramids possible? • These assumptions and beliefs are only possible when system wide progress monitoring is established GADOE, 2007

  12. What is Progress Monitoring? • Regularly and systematically using multiple indicators to assess and monitor children’s progress • Good assessment is essential to help teachers tailor appropriate instruction to children and to know when and how much intensive instruction on any particular skill or strategy might be needed (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1998) GADOE, 2007

  13. Progress Monitoring • Conducted frequently • Designed to: • Estimate rates improvement • Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress • Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction • Thereby design more effective, individualized instructional programs for struggling learners (National Center on Student Progress Monitoring, 2004) GADOE, 2007

  14. What We Look For in CBM INCREASING SCORES: Student is becoming a better reader FLAT SCORES: Student is not profiting from instruction and requires a change in the instructional program GADOE, 2007

  15. Sarah’s Progress on Words Read Correctly(National Center on Student Progress Monitoring, 2004) Sarah Smith Reading 2 Words Read Correctly Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May GADOE, 2007

  16. Jessica’s Progress on Words Read Correctly(National Center on Student Progress Monitoring, 2004) Jessica Jones Reading 2 Words Read Correctly Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May GADOE, 2007

  17. Progress Monitoring Is Used To: • Identify at-risk students who may need additional services • Help teachers plan more effective instruction by designing instructional programs for students with diverse needs GADOE, 2007

  18. Progress Monitoring is Relevant to Special Education Eligibility • Progress monitoring includes the data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting child progress during instruction. When reviewing progress monitoring data, those students that exhibit a positive response to the research validated instruction being provided by general education cannot be considered as having a disability even though they may show deficits on achievement tests in the specified areas { SBOE Rule 160-4-7-.05 ELIGIBILITY DETERMINATION AND CATEGORIES OF ELIGIBILITY } GADOE, 2007

  19. Special Education Eligibility Determination • Data must be provided documenting that the exclusionary factors are not the primary reason for the student’s weakness • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading, to include the essential components of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) • Lack of appropriate instruction in math • Lack of appropriate instruction in writing GADOE, 2007

  20. Continuation of Exclusionary Factors-Limited English proficiency-Visual, hearing or motor disability-Intellectual disabilities-Emotional disturbances-Cultural factors-Environmental or economic disadvantage-Atypical educational history GADOE, 2007

  21. The Role of Progress Monitoring in Documenting Exclusionary Factors • A student’s classroom performance is not correctable without specialized techniques that are fundamentally different from those available in the general education classroom, basic remedial/tutorial approaches, or other compensatory programs. This is clearly documented by the child’s response to instruction as demonstrated by a review of the progress monitoring available in general education and Student Support Team (SST) intervention plans as supported by work samples and classroom observations. The child's need for academic support alone is not sufficient for eligibility. { SBOE Rule 160-4-7-.05 ELIGIBILITY DETERMINATION AND CATEGORIES OF ELIGIBILITY } GADOE, 2007

  22. Why is Progress Monitoring Needed for Eligibility Determination? We must come to grips with the realities that school districts serve different populations of children, have differing resources to address problem learners, and make eligibility decisions in light of these different circumstances. Macmillan & Siperstein, 2001 GADOE, 2007

  23. How do we operationalize Tier I and Tier II? • Key questions to answer are: - Do we have scientifically based curricula for all students in Reading, ELA, and math? - Are school wide screenings used to group students for supplementary assistance? - How are formative assessments analyzed to determine student needs?

  24. Georgia Reading First Model • All children are assessed using the DIBELS instrument in fall, winter, spring. • Those “at risk” or “some risk” are given additional instruction. • Progress monitoring occurs on a regular basis.

  25. Implementing a Staggered Reading Block • After the initial grade level instruction, students move during the reading block to homogenously grouped classrooms in order to better utilize all of their trained staff. A student would have a designated, highly qualified teacher in the area of reading who could be a general education teacher, a special education teacher, or an ESOL teacher depending on the students needs. The teachers with the high-risk children have smaller groups of children during the reading block.

  26. How is your system implementing Tier I and Tier II? • Do you have a screening measure in place? If so, where is the data maintained? • What is the cut-point to determine those students that may be considered at-risk? • How are students targeted for preventative intervention? • How long are students provided preventative intervention? What determines success? • How has the role of general education teachers, specialists and support staff changed?

  27. What is Tier 3 • This should be the school’s line of defense for reducing the number of students who are low performing or perhaps later referred for special education determination. Providing timely and evidence-based instructional strategies to at risk students can be the difference between those at-risk students successfully meeting standards.

  28. What are the components of Tier 3? • It consists of general education instruction PLUS specialized intervention that contains: • Small group instruction • Mastery requirements of content (relative to cut points identified on criterion screening measures and continued growth) • Frequency of progress monitoring • Duration of the intervention ( Nine to 12 weeks recommended) • Frequency with which the intervention is delivered (Three to four intervention session per week with 45-60 minutes per session) • Instructor qualifications

  29. What is this Tier 3 or SST? • Current process for SST • Every child that fails or is difficult to teach has collaboratively developed individual plan • Problems • Limited evidence based interventions • Lack of baseline data in deficit area(s) • Teams are created without expertise provided • Limited accountability for fidelity of implementation • Pyramid of Intervention Tier 3 Process • More Prescriptive based on results of on-going assessment • Fewer Choices- Materials Readied—Pre-training • Progress monitoring embedded

  30. Decision Making Along the Continuum of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention • www.georgiastandards.org

  31. Tier 1 • Universal screening or benchmarking is conducted at school level. • Evidence based curricula and strategies are in place for all students, and differentiation is documented by general education teachers through the general education environment. • At risk students are identified in an area of instructional delay (language, academics, behavior). • Any student identified as at risk is monitored for at least a grading period with progress monitoring tool or CBM in order to determine instructional effectiveness. • Data is included and analyzed by classroom general education teacher for decision making that indicates if Tier 1 universal interventions should be continued or if there is a need to proceed to the increased intensity of Tier 2 interventions. www.georgiastandards.org

  32. Tier 2 • Hearing and vision screenings are completed for each student requiring Tier 2 interventions. • Parents are notified that additional small group instruction may be needed for their student. • The parent is contacted through a conference, phone call, or letter sent home that includes written documentation of the strategies that will be attempted. • Small group instruction in addition to core curriculum is provided to the student for at least one grading period. • Progress Monitoring is administered at least every 2-3 weeks to determine if a change in delivery or strategy is required. • If data after 3 progress monitoring checks indicates regression or no progress, the problem solving team of general education should meet to determine if more intensity in the delivery time or instruction is required. www.georgiastandards.org

  33. Tier 3 • When the student remains at the lowest 25% of performance in the area(s) of deficit and additional interventions are deemed necessary by teachers, parents, or others, the SST process is initiated with a referral to SST. • Baseline and progress monitoring data from Tier 2 are analyzed to create specific goal(s) to increase student achievement in the area(s) of delay. • The SST may determine the need for additional information on the student. This may include the use or administration of informal or formal measures to gather individual data on the area(s) of concern. • Members of SST collaborate to identify no more than 2 specific interventions to utilize with the student. • *The plan for implementation includes a timeline detailing how long the intervention will be implemented and dates for progress monitoring. • If the child is making progress using the SST interventions, the interventions are continued for a minimum of 12 weeks. If progress toward the goal is minimal, SST members will revise or change the intervention. • *The intervention plan should be implemented for at least 4 weeks before changes are made. • *If the intervention plan is successful, the SST will create a plan for reducing the level of support needed by the child to the Tier 2 level. This plan should include a realistic timeframe for accomplishing this goal. • The SST may make a referral to special education if the intervention plan and the revisions are not successful in helping the child meet the goals identified by the SST. www.georgiastandards.org

  34. Tier 4 Specialized Instruction, Monitoring per IEP Tier 3 Progress Monitoring Data-weekly Four Weeks, regression/no progress, revise (repeat if not successful) Four weeks, progress, continue for minimum 12 weeks total Tier 2 Progress Monitoring Data-every 2 to 3 weeks Three data checks, regression/no progress, lowest 25% Three data checks, progress Tier 1 Universal or Benchmark Data monitoring for at least a grading period At-Risk Student Teacher analyzes benchmark data and moves student to Tier 2. On Target Student Teacher analyzes benchmark data and keeps student in Tier 1. www.georgiastandards.org

  35. Summary • It is not merely what is offered, but we must begin to evaluate how it is offered, who teaches it, and which students receive it. Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools

  36. For additional information, contact: Georgia Department of Education Division for Special Education Services and Supports 1870 Twin Towers East Atlanta, Georgia 30334 404-656-3963 Website: http://www.gadoe.org/ci_exceptional.aspx Kristina Brooks: krbrooks@doe.k12.ga.us Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools