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Evidences of evolution. 1.Paleontology or the Fossil Record. The surface layers have more complex land animals The middle layer early vertebrates and amphibians The bottom layer has simple aquatic organisms. The fossils are formed in sedimentary rock.

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1 paleontology or the fossil record
1.Paleontologyor the Fossil Record
  • The surface layers

have more complex

land animals

  • The middle layer

early vertebrates and


  • The bottom layer has

simple aquatic organisms


The fossils are formed in sedimentary rock.

Organisms are buried as each new layer of sediment covers the organisms.

The hard parts make a mold in the sediments.

Minerals deposit in the molds and make a perfect cast or copy of the organism.

Some organisms leave traces of their presence that can also be fossilized, such as foot prints, excrement, or nests

cool canadian stuff to see before you die
Cool Canadian Stuff to see before you die
  • Burgess Shales, Yoho national Park,BC

(on top of the Rockies)

  • Soft bodied marine organisms 540 million years old (middle Cambrian)
royal tyrell museum drumheller alberta
Royal Tyrell Museum, Drumheller, Alberta
              • Albertasaurus
  • Tricerotops
                  • Ankylosaurus
la brea tar pits california
La Brea Tar Pits California
  • Whole organisms mummified having drowned in the tar

Woolly Mammoth

Sabre tooth Tiger

2 comparative anatomy or homologous structures in mammals
2. Comparative Anatomyor Homologous structures in Mammals
  • The arms don’t look the same.
  • The arms have different functions.
  • The bone structure in the arms is the same.
  • It comes from a common ancestor
3 developmental embryology phylogeny mimics ontology
3. Developmental EmbryologyPhylogeny mimics Ontology
  • Our evolution is mirrored in our embryonic development.
4 comparative molecular biology proteins genes dna
4. Comparative molecular BiologyProteins, Genes, DNA

This is an evolutionary tree of the

Enzyme cytochrome-p450

The more differences there are in the

Amino acid sequence the less they are


dna comparison or hybridization
DNAcomparison or Hybridization
  • Denaturing: if you heat DNA it pulls apart.
  • If you mix it with denatured DNA from another species and cool it they will aneal or the complementary parts will stick together.
  • If you heat it a second time they will separate.
  • The more complementary base pairs they have the hotter the temperature needed to pull them apart.
  • Species with lots of complementary base pairs are closer evolutionarily.
5 biogeography global distribution of plants and animals continental drift
5. BiogeographyGlobal distribution of plants and animals, Continental drift

In the Galapagos

and ancestor finch

blew in on a storm

from Equador.

The finch then adapted

to its new environment.

New species arose.

This is called

adaptive radiation.


As continents moved apart climate changes would also cause adaptive radiation.

Similar fossils and living species are found in areas once closely connected

  • "The principle of homology illustrated." ask.com. Web. 7 Apr 2011. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://rpmedia.ask.com/ts%3Fu%3D/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5b/Evolution_pl.png/410px-Evolution_pl.png&imgrefurl=http://www.ask.com/wiki/Evidence_of_common_descent&usg=__1dlCi6ea5zjXilGbiIRJha3ki1U=&h=1578&w=2222&sz=769&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=9B5td1rG_lA8_M:&tbnh=142&tbnw=200&ei=Qv-dTYuJD42I0QH-9qzFBA&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHomologous%2Bstructures%2Bin%2BMammals%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D599%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1"mammalian forelimbs: homologous structures." charleswardle.com. Web. 7 Apr 2011. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2587/3978533505_1f7066c09d.jpg&imgrefurl=http://charleswardle.com/evidence-for-evolution-homology-%25E2%2580%2593-similarities-between-creatures/&usg=__KOOGRACk_WRVl1gTZqIJTZqnu6Q=&h=255&w=500&sz=90&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=5V8DnvK0cWRkEM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=207&ei=VgCeTby4OtK00QHprNiiBA&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHomologous%2Bstructures%2Bin%2BMammals%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D599%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=550&vpy=98&dur=8924&hovh=160&hovw=315&tx=185&ty=143&oei=VgCeTby4OtK00QHprNiiBA&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0>.