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An Introduction to Special Education Services In BC Pamela Cameron Vancouver Island University Fall 2011.  Exceptional students  At risk  Special education  Adapted curriculum  Modified curriculum  Charter of rights and freedoms  Inclusion  Individual education plan.

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An Introduction to

Special Education Services


Pamela Cameron

Vancouver Island University

Fall 2011

Define the following

 Exceptional students

 At risk

 Special education

 Adapted curriculum

 Modified curriculum

 Charter of rights and freedoms

 Inclusion

 Individual education plan

 School based team

 Mainstreaming

 Gifted

 High incidence

 Low incidence

 Integration

 Impairment

 Disability

 Handicap

Define the following

Bc special education acronym guide
BC Special Education Acronym Guide








  • BSP PT




  • CEC WIAT 2



  • ESL WJ3

  • FASD

  • LA

History of special education in canada
History of Special Education inCanada

  • 1978 – Alberta Supreme Court decision

    Ordered Lamont County school board to widen doors, build a ramp, and educate Shelley Carriere, a student with cerebral palsy, in her community school

  • 1980 – Ontario Education Act was amended to recognize the rights of students with disabilities to receive an appropriate education at public expense, and to permit parents to appeal the identification of their child as exceptional and the placement of their child.

Exclusion to integration
Exclusion to Integration

  • 1981 Charter of Rights and Freedoms

  • 1985 Charter amendment prohibits discrimination on the basis of mental or physical disability

  • Major changes in the Canadian education system

    “From Exclusion to Integration”

History of special education in canada1

History of Special Education in Canada

1995 – Eaton v. Brant County School Board

Stated that “unless the parents of a child who has

been identified as exceptional by reason of a

physical or mental disability, consent to the

placement of that child in a segregated

environment, the school board must provide a

placement that is the least exclusionary from the

mainstream and still reasonably capable of

meeting the child’s special needs”

(Eaton v. Brant Board of Education , 1995, pp. 33-34)

B c ministry definitions
B.C. Ministry Definitions

  • Definition: Students with special needs:

    have disabilities of an intellectual,

    physical, sensory, emotional, or

    behavioural nature, or have a learning

    disability or have exceptional gifts or


BC Min of Education requires that ….

Wherever possible, students with special educational needs are educated in:

Regular classrooms

In their neighbourhood schools

B c ministry definitions1
B.C. Ministry Definitions

  • Goal: The goal of the BC school system

    is to support the intellectual

    development of all students, including

    those with special needs. Enabling all

    students to achieve the goals of

    human, social and career development

    is a responsibility shared by schools,

    families and the community.

B c ministry definitions2
B.C. Ministry Definitions

  • Inclusion: The School Act requires that

    school boards make available

    educational programs to all school age

    persons resident in the district. All

    students are to be included. A

    Ministerial Order requires the

    integration of students with special

    needs with those who do not have special needs in most instances

Current state of inclusive education in b c
Current State of InclusiveEducation in B.C.

Inclusive education in B.C. is defined as:

  • The value system which holds that all students are entitled to equitable access to learning, achievement and the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of their education.

  • The practice of inclusion transcends the idea of physical location, and incorporates basic values that promote participation, friendship and interaction.

Current state of inclusive education
Current State of InclusiveEducation

  • The changes we are experiencing currently are intended to ‘move from the goal of access for as many students as possible to success for as many as possible’

Current state of inclusive education1
Current State of InclusiveEducation

  • Success for exceptional students depends on complex rights that include:

  • a. identification of educational needs

  • b. adapted teaching and services to meet those needs

Individual education plan
Individual Education Plan

Describes …….

Program goals and objectives designed to meet the individual needs of each student

Individual education plans
Individual Education Plans

Written in consultation with:

  • Parents

  • Classroom teachers & administration

  • Other involved specialists & outside


Individual education plans1
Individual Education Plans


  • Medical information and diagnosis

  • Current levels of educational performance

  • Goals for the student

  • All adaptations/modifications to materials & instructional & assessment methods

Individual education plans2
Individual Education Plans


  • All support services in place

  • Names of all personnel providing support services during the school year

  • Period of time and process for review of the IEP & any SET BC requirements


  • In small groups, respond to the following challenge:

  • Should we have a policy of inclusion in our schools?

    2. What are the advantages/disadvantages of adopting such a model?

Low incidence categories
Low Incidence Categories

  • A: Dependent Handicapped

  • B: Deaf Blind

  • C: Moderately Intellectually Challenged

  • D: Physical Disability/ Chronic Health Impairment

  • E: Visually Impaired

  • F: Deaf or Hard of Hearing

  • G: Autism Spectrum Disorder

Dependent handicapped
Dependent Handicapped

  • The student is completely dependent on

    others for meeting all major daily living


  • Requires assistance at all times for each of

    the following:

  •  Feeding

  •  Dressing

  •  Toileting

  •  Mobility

  •  Personal Hygiene

Deaf blind

 Medical evidence shows that the student's vision

is impaired (from partial sight to total blindness)


 Medical evidence shows that the student's

hearing is impaired (from moderate to profound

hearing loss).

The degree of impairments, when

compounded, results in significant

communicative, educational, vocational, and

social skills difficulties

Moderate to profound intellectual disabilities
Moderate to ProfoundIntellectual Disabilities

  • Assessment information indicates the student's intellectual functioning is more than 3 standard deviations below the norm on an individually administered Level C assessment of intellectual functioning (SS <55), and

  • There is delayed adaptive behaviour and functioning of similar degree (SS<55) on a norm referenced measure of adaptive behaviour.

Physical disability chronic health impairment
Physical Disability/ChronicHealth Impairment

  • Documentation of a medical diagnosis, carried out by a physician in one or more of the following areas:

  •  Nervous system impairment

  •  Musculoskeletal condition

  •  Chronic health impairment

Visual impairments
Visual Impairments

  • A documented report by an opthalmologist, optometrist, orthopist or the Visually Impaired Program of the BC Children’s Hospital which describes the students visual impairment having visual problems even after eye correction. Details are in the category checklists.

Deaf or hard of hearing
Deaf or Hard of Hearing

  • The student must have a medically diagnosed significant bilateral or unilateral hearing loss with significant speech/language delay, or a cochlear implant typically documented in a report from a health professional such as an audiologist

Autism spectrum disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders

The syndrome of autism is a condition

characterized by a marked disorder of

communication and a severe disturbance of

intellectual, emotional and behavioural


It is a syndrome defined and diagnosed through the observation of behaviours. The syndrome is caused by an underlying physical dysfunction within the brain or central nervous system, the exact nature of

which is as yet unknown.

Intensive behaviour support or students with serious mental illness
Intensive BehaviourSupport or Students with Serious Mental Illness

  • Students who require behaviour supports are students whose behaviours reflect dysfunctional interactions between the student and one or more elements of the environment, including the classroom, school, family, peers and community. This is commonly referred to as behaviour disorders.

  • Behaviour disorders vary in their severity and effect on learning, interpersonal relations and personal adjustment.

Intensive behaviour support
Intensive BehaviourSupport…..

  • Students Requiring Intensive Behaviour Interventions are eligible to be claimed in this special education funding category if they exhibit:

    antisocial, extremely disruptive

    behaviour in most environments (for

    example, classroom, school, family, and

    the community); and·

    behaviours that areconsistent/persistent over time

Intensive behaviour support1
Intensive BehaviourSupport….

 serious mental health conditions which have

been diagnosed by a qualified mental health

clinician (psychologist with appropriate training,

psychiatrist, or physician); and

 serious mental illnesses which manifest

themselves in profound withdrawal or other

negative internalizing behaviours; and

 These students often have histories of profound

problems, and present as very vulnerable,

fragile students who are seriously 'at risk' in

classroom and other environmentswithout

extensive support.

High incidence categories
High Incidence Categories

Learning Disabilities

Mild Intellectual Disabilities


 Moderate Behaviour Support or Students with Mental Illness


Reflect on your experiences with inclusion:

1. What did you gain?

2. What did the person with the exceptionality gain?

3. What did the school community gain?

  • Discuss in small groups

Funding structure
Funding Structure

Level 1 = $36,600


Handicapped (A)

Deaf Blind (B)

Funding structure1
Funding Structure

Level 2 = $18,300

  • Moderate to Severe/

    Profound Intellectual

    Disabilities (C)

  • Physical Disabilities/

    Chronic Health (D)

  • Visual Impairments (E)

  • Deaf or Hard of Hearing (F)

  • Autism (G)

Funding structure2
Funding Structure

Level 3 = $9,200

  • Intensive Behaviour

    Interventions /Serious Mental Illness (H)

Funding structure3
Funding Structure

High Incidence funding is included in student allocation

  • Mild Intellectual Disabilities (K)

  • Learning Disabilities (Q)

  • Behaviour Support / Mental Illness (R)

  • Gifted (P)

Meeting the criteria for supplemental funding
Meeting the Criteria for Supplemental Funding

  • Must meet the criteria for placement in the specific category / medical diagnosis

  • A current IEP must be in place

  • Ongoing and regular special education services must be provided

Meeting the criteria for supplemental funding1
Meeting the Criteria for supplemental funding

  • Services must be outlined in IEP and directly related to the student’s identified special needs

  • Special education service(s) must be in addition to any services provided under the formula funding eg. Learning assistance, counseling

District or school based specialists for
District or School-based Specialistsfor:

  • Students with Special Needs

  • Severe Learning Disabilities

  • Students requiring Behaviour Support

  • Deaf or Hard of Hearing

  • Visually Impaired

District or school based specialists con t
District or School-based Specialists con’t

  • Speech and Language Pathologists

  • Occupational Therapist & Physiotherapist

  • School Psychologist (Assessment)

  • Teacher of Hospital Homebound

  • Coordinator for Special Education Technology (SET BC)

Education assistants
Education Assistants

  • $8,000 buys about 5 hours of EA time per week

  • $16,000 buys about 11 hours of EA time per week

  • $32,000 buys about 23 hours per week

  • 20 hours per week= $28,000

  • 27.5 hours per week= $38,500

  • 30 hour position = $ 42,000 per year

  • Under supervision of the program manager, education assistants play a key role in program implementation


Discuss the following:

  • How are EAs allocated in your district/schools?

  • Does the level of funding meet the needs of designated students?

  • If the funding is not sufficient, what are some creative ways your school uses your EA time?

  • Do you see circumstances where EA time could be used more efficiently?