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Effective Business Writing. Course Objectives. Review the writing process. Assess common grammar and style problem areas. Enable student to write more efficiently and powerfully. Review the effective use of email and PowerPoint. 2. Table of Contents. 3. Reflection Questions.

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Presentation Transcript
course objectives
Course Objectives
  • Review the writing process.
  • Assess common grammar and style problem areas.
  • Enable studentto write more efficiently and powerfully.
  • Review the effective use of email and PowerPoint.

2

reflection questions
Reflection Questions
  • What issues do you find with others’ writing?
  • What concerns do you have with your own writing?
  • What are troubles you have when writing?
  • How does business writing differ from academic writing?

4

the writing process
The Writing Process
  • Prepare to Write
    • Plan Your Document
    • Generate Ideas
    • Organize Your Information
  • Compose Your Document
    • Draft
    • Revise
    • Refine

5

slide6

PLAN YOUR DOCUMENT

  • GENERATE IDEAS
  • ORGANIZE YOUR INFORMATION

The Writing Process

PREPARE TO WRITE

6

plan your document
Plan Your Document
  • Message
  • Audience
  • Purpose

7

message
Message
  • What is the main topic to convey in your document?
    • Focus on one main topic.
  • What is the level of detail needed to communicate this topic?
    • This will help determine the format and program you will use.

8

understand your audience
Understand Your Audience
  • What does the audience already know about the topic?
  • How does the audience feel about the topic?
  • How does the audience feel about you, your team, and/or your organization?
  • Knowing your audience helps determine:
    • Format
    • Organization
    • Flow of thought

9

the hidden audience
The Hidden Audience
  • Who could read this document?
  • Is this document ready for infinite distribution?
  • Should this document be written?

10

purpose
Purpose
  • What do you want to accomplish with the document?
    • Does a decision need to be made?
    • Do you want action?
    • Are you trying to persuade the audience?
    • Is this to inform others of information you collected?
  • What is the end result/goal of your document?

11

slide12

Understand Your Audience Exercise

You are a member of a project team.

  • Review a sample project document of your choice.
  • Read the descriptions for Reader A and Reader B.
  • How would you write for different audiences? What is the purpose of each situation?

Reader A (George)

    • What do you want to get from George?
    • What approach should you take with George?
  • Reader B (Marie)
    • How is Marie related to this?
    • What do you want to get from Marie?
    • How would you approach her?

12

slide13

PLAN YOUR DOCUMENT

  • GENERATE IDEAS
  • ORGANIZE YOUR INFORMATION

The Writing Process

PREPARE TO WRITE

13

brainstorming methods
Brainstorming Methods

Graphic Method

Draw an idea diagram

Doodle

Reading and Writing Method

Research

Take notes

Outline

Freewrite

Spoken Method

Speak aloud

Ask questions reader might ask

Imagine conversation with reader

Record on tape or write

Group Method

Discuss with colleagues, friends

Brainstorm with colleagues

14

slide15

PLAN YOUR DOCUMENT

  • GENERATE IDEAS
  • ORGANIZE YOUR INFORMATION

The Writing Process

PREPARE TO WRITE

15

three essential components
Three Essential Components

Introduction

Hook

Key Message

Purpose

Body

Background and Details

Major and Minor Points

Organized Ideas

Conclusion

Summarize

Restate Key Message

Request Action

16

organizing your information
Organizing Your Information
  • Sample Methods of Organization:
    • Sequence
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Priority
    • Cause and Effect
    • Comparison and Contrast
    • Problem and Solution
    • Journalism
    • Analysis
    • Case Study
    • Spatial

17

organizational patterns documentation
Organizational Patterns: Documentation
  • For the detail-oriented
    • Introduction > Body > Conclusions > Recommendations > Close
  • For the action-oriented
    • Introduction > Conclusions > Recommendations > Body > Close
  • To give recommendations
    • Introduction > Recommendations > Conclusions > Body > Close
  • To catch the reader’s attention
    • Introduction > Conclusions > Body > Recommendations > Close

18

organizational patterns persuasion
Reader’s Question:

Why should I read this?

What are you suggesting?

What’s in it for me?

How do you know?

Let me make sure I understand.

Persuasive Pattern:

Global Benefit

Ideas & Features

Specific Benefits

Rationale

Summary

Organizational Patterns: Persuasion

19

slide20

DRAFT

  • REVISE
  • REFINE

The Writing Process

COMPOSE YOUR DOCUMENT

20

compose your document
Compose Your Document
  • Decide what information to include or exclude.
  • Organize your information.
    • Pre-determined organization
    • Flexible organization

Focus on content, not mechanics.

21

slide22

DRAFT

  • REVISE
  • REFINE

The Writing Process

COMPOSE YOUR DOCUMENT

22

revise your document
Revise Your Document
  • Is the message stated clearly?
  • Is the document appropriate for its audience?
  • Does the document achieve its purpose?
  • Is the document well-organized?
  • Tips:
    • Put your document aside for a few hours (or days) before revising it. This helps you look at it with fresh eyes.
    • Print your document. Some problems are difficult to identify on a computer screen.

23

slide24

DRAFT

  • REVISE
  • REFINE

The Writing Process

COMPOSE YOUR DOCUMENT

24

refine your document
Refine Your Document
  • Confirm factual accuracy.
  • Enforce stylistic consistency.
  • Correct mechanical errors.
  • Reduce wordiness.
  • Utilize appropriate tools.

25

confirm factual accuracy
Confirm Factual Accuracy

Figures

Confirm the accuracy of figures by checking them against your original source.

Calculations

Confirm the accuracy of calculations by performing them at least twice. Pay attention to decimals, rounding, and percentages.

Other Facts

Confirm the accuracy of other facts by checking reliable records and sources.

26

enforce stylistic consistency
Enforce Stylistic Consistency
  • Utilize a writing style guide.
    • The Chicago Manual of Style
    • American Psychological Association
    • The Associated Press Stylebook
  • Create a document style sheet (for documents longer than 2 pages).

Capitalization, hyphenation, abbreviation, and use of italics and boldface

27

correct mechanical errors
Correct Mechanical Errors
  • Read carefully.
  • Perform word processor spelling and grammar checks.
  • Use a checklist of common mechanical errors.
  • Refer to a dictionary, writing style guide, etc.

Spelling, usage, grammar, and punctuation

30

mechanics subject verb agreement
Mechanics: Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Subject = a noun or noun phrase performing the action or being in the state expressed by the verb
  • Verb = a word or group of words showing the action or state of being
    • State of being: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

31

mechanics subject verb agreement exercise
Mechanics: Subject-Verb Agreement Exercise
  • Each of the reports (contains/contain) useful information.
  • Neither the Smith twins nor Samantha (was/were) informed of the changes made in the club bylaws.
  • Her purse, along with her checkbook and all her credit cards (was/were) stolen.
  • Neither of the experiments (appears/appear) to confirm the hypothesis.
  • Acoustics (is/are) a science to which architects pay heed when they design theater halls.
  • Three hours (is/are) a long time to wait in line.

32

mechanics subject verb agreement exercise33
Mechanics: Subject-Verb Agreement Exercise
  • Each of the reports (contains/contain) useful information.
  • Neither the Smith twins nor Samantha (was/were) informed of the changes made in the club bylaws.
  • Her purse, along with her checkbook and all her credit cards (was/were) stolen.
  • Neither of the experiments (appears/appear) to confirm the hypothesis.
  • Acoustics (is/are) a science to which architects pay heed when they design theater halls.
  • Three hours (is/are) a long time to wait in line.

33

mechanics verb tense
Mechanics: Verb Tense
  • Tense shows the time in which an act, state, or condition occurs or occurred.
  • 3 major divisions of time:
    • Past
    • Present
    • Future
  • Be consistent with verb tense throughout your document.

34

mechanics sentence fragments
Mechanics: Sentence Fragments
  • A sentence fragment is an incomplete thought.
  • There must be a subject and verb in every sentence.
  • The baseball went into the neighbor’s backyard. Which is why I climbed the fence.
  • Caleb cooks delicious food. Like tortellini and tiramisu.
  • Because not reading the email from her boss made Alice miss the meeting.

35

mechanics run on sentences
Mechanics: Run-on Sentences
  • Run-on sentence: two or more independent clauses joined with no punctuation or conjunction
    • I went to the store yesterday I bought eggs, milk, and flour.
    • Gina presented her proposal to the managers they approved it.
  • Comma splice: two independent clauses joined with a comma
    • I went to the store yesterday, I bought eggs, milk, and flour.
    • Gina presented her proposal to the managers, they approved it.

36

mechanics run on sentences37
Mechanics: Run-on Sentences

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way – in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.

Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

37

mechanics pronouns
Mechanics: Pronouns
  • Pronoun: a substitute for a noun or noun phrase

38

mechanics who vs whom
Mechanics: Who vs. Whom
  • Who/Whom wrote the letter?
    • He wrote the letter.
  • For who/whom should I vote?
    • Should I vote for him?
  • We all know who/whom pulled that prank.
    • Who/Whom pulled that prank? He pulled that prank.
  • We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.
    • The prank was pulled on who/whom? The prank was pulled on him.

He = Who (Subjective)

Him = Whom (Objective)

39

mechanics pronoun exercise
Mechanics: Pronoun Exercise
  • Michael Jordan is taller than (I/me).
  • Everyone should improve (his/their) writing skills.
  • Between you and (I/me), the form of a pronoun is important.
  • I’ll pledge my support to (whoever/whomever) promises to protect the environment.
  • Mom, Dad, Rosie, and (me/I) made plans to attend the chili cook-off.
  • I am going with (whoever/whomever) I wish.
  • (Who/Whom) is responsible for the mistake?

40

mechanics pronoun exercise41
Mechanics: Pronoun Exercise
  • Michael Jordan is taller than (I/me).
  • Everyone should improve (his/their) writing skills.
  • Between you and (I/me), the form of a pronoun is important.
  • I’ll pledge my support to (whoever/whomever) promises to protect the environment.
  • Mom, Dad, Rosie, and (me/I) made plans to attend the chili cook-off.
  • I am going with (whoever/whomever) I wish.
  • (Who/Whom) is responsible for the mistake?

41

mechanics unclear pronouns
Mechanics: Unclear Pronouns
  • Remove the desk from the carton and leave it on the loading dock.
  • The bird landed on the wire and it fell.
  • From his table, Gary saw Steve walk into the pizza shop. Bill was carrying his pizza to the table. Soon, he was sharing his pizza.

42

mechanics modifiers
Mechanics: Modifiers
  • Modifier: a word or phrase that helps clarify or limit the extent of the meaning of another word, phrase, or clause
    • Adjectives (modify nouns and pronouns)
    • Adverbs (modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs)
  • Dangling modifier: a misplaced modifier, attaching itself to a word other than the word to which it was meant to be attached

“One morning, I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got into my pajamas, I don’t know.”

-Groucho Marx, Animal Crackers

43

mechanics modifier exercise
Mechanics: Modifier Exercise
  • Walking down Main Street, the trees were beautiful.
  • The sheriff heard that the prisoner had escaped from the messenger.
  • Dr. Stillwell will discuss methods of growing giant firs in the Carson Building conference room.
  • I saw the car peeking through a window.
  • I was told that the copier was broken by Joey.
  • She is picking up the materials for the other instructor we had sent.

44

mechanics parallel structures
Mechanics: Parallel Structures
  • Parallel structure: the balance of two or more similar words, phrases, or clauses
  • Correlative conjunction: a paired conjunction that links balanced words, phrases, and clauses
    • Both…and
    • Either…or
    • Just as…so
    • Neither…nor
    • Not only…but also
    • Whether…or

45

mechanics parallel structures activity 1
Mechanics: Parallel Structures Activity 1
  • Sue likes cooking, jogging, and to read.
  • Please complete this form, sign it, and then it should be sent to me.
  • Patsy not only wrote the proposal but also to present it to the board.
  • Peyton both conducted research and will write the report.
  • Our goals are to:
    • Write powerful documents.
    • Edit more thoroughly.
    • Thinking from the reader’s perspective.

46

mechanics parallel structures activity 2
Mechanics: Parallel Structures Activity 2
  • Phone, email
  • VP of Operations, CEO
  • Analyze, survey
  • Execute, deploy
  • Collaborate, resolve

47

mechanics tone
Mechanics: Tone
  • Tone: the writer’s implied attitude toward the subject or toward the audience
  • Using an appropriate tone will result in:
    • A positive reader response
    • No unintentionally offensive language
  • Appropriate tone reflects your attitude toward the subject and audience by considering the level of:
    • Formality: Who will read this?
    • Urgency: How urgent is this message?
    • Objectivity: How objective do I need to be?

48

mechanics tone activity 1
Mechanics: Tone Activity 1
  • Review Ashley’s impressive resume and let me know your thoughts.
  • It would behoove all employees to refrain from making personal calls during work.
  • Please send this document out today if you can.
  • Write a report discussing your research and turn it in to me next week.

49

mechanics tone50
Confident

Use: Will, Can

Avoid: I think, if you agree

Conversational

Use: everyday vocabulary, contractions

Avoid: corporate jargon, formal vocabulary

Positive

Use: can, benefit

Avoid: cannot, unable to

Courteous

Use: please, thank you

Avoid: rude language, pointing blame

Mechanics: Tone

50

mechanics tone activity 2
Mechanics: Tone Activity 2
  • Although our team is small, it can easily handle your request.
  • I apologize profusely for the unintentional deviation from the project’s expected completion date.
  • You failed to pay your bill on time.
  • Had you read the item description, you would have selected something else.

51

mechanics voice
Mechanics: Voice
  • Voice: used to describe whether the subject of the sentence is acting or receiving the action expressed by the verb
  • Verbs take three forms:
    • Active: the subject does the acting
      • Shakespeare wroteHamlet.
    • Passive: the subject receives the action
      • Hamletwas written by Shakespeare.
    • Inert: the subject does not act or receive the action
      • Shakespeare was a playwright.

52

mechanics why does voice matter
Mechanics: Why Does Voice Matter?
  • Active voice:
    • Clearly identifies the actor
    • Simplifies sentences
  • Passive voice:
    • Delays, hides, or erases the action
    • Requires more words
    • Suggests passivity, hesitancy, or a lack of clarity

53

mechanics passive vs active voice
The ball was thrown.

Rocks are hauled away.

Two goals were scored.

She threw the ball.

Trucks haul rocks away.

Jay scored two goals.

Mechanics: Passive vs. Active Voice

54

mechanics recognizing passive voice
Mechanics: Recognizing Passive Voice

Does the sentence contain a “to be” verb?

Yes

Is the verb following the “to be” verb in the past tense?

Yes

Does (or can) “by” appear after the combined verbs?

Yes

The sentence is passive.

55

mechanics active passive or inert
Mechanics: Active, Passive, or Inert?
  • We were surprised by the ease of the work.
  • Nothing has been promised.
  • The race was too close to call.
  • New rules will be published by the commission.
  • Run to the bakery and pick up a pie.
  • Tito was the dog in the commercial.
  • The committee will grant final approval of the project.
  • The report was written yesterday.

56

mechanics making passive sentences active
Mechanics: Making Passive Sentences Active
  • Place the “actor” in front of the “action”.
  • Eliminate the “to be” verb.

The wall was damaged by the earthquake.

The earthquake damaged the wall.

57

mechanics making active sentences exercise
Mechanics: Making Active Sentences Exercise
  • We were surprised by the ease of the work.
  • Nothing has been promised.
  • The race was too close to call.
  • New rules will be published by the commission.
  • Run to the bakery and pick up a pie.
  • Tito was the dog in the commercial.
  • The committee will grant final approval of the project.
  • The report was written yesterday.

58

reduce wordiness
Reduce Wordiness
  • Use the SURE Test.
  • Remove words that do not add meaning.
  • Choose strong verbs.
  • Vary sentence length.
  • Write with a human touch.

Use familiar, precise language

59

wordiness short words vs long words
Wordiness: Short Words vs. Long Words
  • Use short words to increase readability and efficiency.
  • Long words are preferable when they are:
    • Simple, familiar
    • Unique
    • Rich, precise
    • Economical, efficient

“I never write ‘metropolis’ for seven cents because I can get the same price for ‘city’. I never write ‘policeman’ because I can get the same money for ‘cop’.”

-Mark Twain

60

wordiness redundant words
Wordiness: Redundant Words
  • Remove words that do not add meaning
  • Every now and then I sometimes work overtime.
  • I estimate the project will be complete in approximately 5 weeks.
  • This upward trend should continue in the future.
  • I typed the email on the computer yesterday.

61

wordiness specific vs general verbs
Wordiness: Specific vs. General Verbs

Observe

Perceive

Notice

Spot

Perform

Carry Out

Complete

Achieve

SEE

DO

Stumble

Amble

Tromp

Limp

Phone

Write

Meet

Call

WALK

CONTACT

62

wordiness specific vs general verbs63
Wordiness: Specific vs. General Verbs
  • Specific verbs:
    • Energize descriptions
    • Engage readers
    • Economize writing

Jerry made the name tags for the meeting.

Jerry designed the name tags for the meeting.

63

wordiness smothered verbs
Wordiness: Smothered Verbs
  • Smothered verb: a verb turned into a noun
  • Examples:
    • Make an assessment vs. Assess
    • Give authorization vs. Authorize
    • Give a quotation vs. Quote
  • Avoiding smothered verbs:
    • Saves words
    • Provides strength
    • Focuses on action

64

wordiness smothered verbs exercise
Wordiness: Smothered Verbs Exercise
  • My expectation is that the board will provide approval of the contract by Thursday.
  • Mark will make a choice on who to staff on the project.
  • My manager asked me to hold a discussion with the client about the project timeline.
  • The client asked us to perform a review of their inventory process and make a recommendation.
  • Granger gave his recommendation that we begin the presentation at noon.
  • Susan is going to conduct a survey with the shareholders.

65

wordiness sentence length
Wordiness: Sentence Length
  • Readers need variety in sentence length to stay engaged.
  • Use one idea per sentence.
  • Mix different sentence lengths.
    • Example: 12 words, 20 words, 4 words
  • Short sentences are OK.

66

wordiness sentence length67
Wordiness: Sentence Length
  • The association is very active in establishing professional evaluation programs. Their activity in this regard is a very positive thing. That responsibility is one which must be accepted by someone.
    • 10 words, 10 words, 10 words
  • The association is very active in setting up evaluation programs for the profession. That’s good. Someone needs to do it.
    • 13 words, 2 words, 5 words

67

wordiness human touch
Wordiness: Human Touch
  • Readers usually respond well to writing that sounds natural.

A sizable oncorhynchus mykiss elevated itself above the reservoir’s placid façade several meters beyond the diminutive vessel’s starboard flank.

Close beside the boat, a big trout broke the surface of the water.

68

utilize appropriate tools
Utilize Appropriate Tools
  • Motor to Weight Ratio
  • Fog Index
  • Microsoft Word Writing Style Options

69

tools motor to weight ratio
Tools: Motor to Weight Ratio

M : W

ACTION VERBS : TOTAL WORDS

The new manager-mentor program lasts six months.

1:8

The program is based on the premise that students need practice and opportunities to practice in safe environments.

2:18

70

tools fog index
Tools: Fog Index
  • Fog Index:
    • Allows us to assess readability
    • Was created in 1968 by Robert Gunning, an English professor at Oxford University
    • Is a number that ties to the complexity of a reading level (grades 6-17)
  • Words and grammatical structures determine language complexity.
  • A complex topic does not require complex writing.

71

tools fog index72
Tools: Fog Index

A mathematician’s definition of the Euclidean Continuum:

Such a surface may be designated a continuum that exhibits the property of enabling continuity of movement from any position thereon to any other position through undertaking a repetitive process of numerous uninterrupted migrations from one point to any other point that is in immediate juxtaposition to it.

72

tools fog index73
Tools: Fog Index

Albert Einstein’s definition of the Euclidean Continuum:

I can get from any point on a marble table to any other point by passing continuously from one point to a neighboring one and repeating the process a large number of times. In other words, by going from point to point without executing jumps. We express this property of the surface by describing the latter as a continuum.

73

tools fog index76
Tools: Fog Index

(Total words / Total sentences)

+ (Long words / Total words * 100)

Total

x 0.4

Fog Index

54 / 1 = 54

+ 10 / 54 * 100 = 18.5

72.5

x 0.4

29

Gopher Gas Storage Company (GGSC), whose purpose is to own and operate high deliverability, multi-cycle natural gas storage facilities in strategic areas across the United States has determined that, due to increasing business demands, it requires a new back office system that will scale effectively to meet the company’s current and anticipated growth plans.

76

tools fog index77
Tools: Fog Index

(Total words / Total sentences)

+ (Long words / Total words * 100)

Total

x 0.4

Fog Index

37 / 2 = 18.5

+ 3 / 37 * 100 = 8.1

26.6

x 0.4

10.6

Gopher Gas Storage Company (GGSC), whose purpose is to owns and operates high deliverability, multi-cycle natural gas storage facilities depots in strategic areas across the United States. has determined that, Due to increasing business demands, it GGSC requires needs a new back office system that will scale effectively to meet the company’s current and anticipated growth plans.

77

tools fog index78
Tools: Fog Index
  • If you cannot avoid high fog:
    • Use a short sample
    • Motivate the reader
    • Use an interesting style
    • Catch a fresh reader

78

tools microsoft word writing style options
Tools: Microsoft Word Writing Style Options
  • Tools > Options > Spelling & Grammar

79

tools microsoft word writing style options80
Tools: Microsoft Word Writing Style Options
  • Run Spelling & Grammar Check

80

exercise 12 measure readability
Exercise 12: Measure Readability
  • Writing Topics:
    • A project deliverable you created
    • An email to your client requesting feedback on your project
  • 150-200 words, or approx. half a typed page

81

slide82

EMAIL

  • PRESENTATIONS
  • DATA PRESENTATION

COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVLEY

82

choosing the program
Choosing the Program
  • Message: What information must be conveyed?
  • Audience: Who is your audience?
  • Purpose: What is the purpose of the communication?

83

choosing the program84
Choosing the Program

Choose the program based on the purpose of the message and the level of detail needed.

slide85

EMAIL

  • PRESENTATIONS
  • DATA PRESENTATION

COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVLEY

85

top 10 mistakes to avoid when writing email
Top 10 Mistakes to Avoid When Writing Email
  • Thinking email is good for everything
  • Not writing email from the reader’s perspective
  • Forgetting about the importance of etiquette
  • CCing the world
  • Believing that an erased email is gone forever
  • Viewing instant messages as less ‘formal’ than email
  • Assuming people have time to read your entire message
  • Mismatching the sender’s tone
  • Lack of a clear request
  • Not re-reading before you hit ‘send’

By Karen Leland and Keith Bailey

http://www.quality-service.com/training/write_email.html

86

slide87

EMAIL

  • PRESENTATIONS
  • DATA PRESENTATION

COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVLEY

87

powerpoint presentations
PowerPoint Presentations
  • Purpose of PowerPoint: to display visual information and present data
  • 2 elements of a PowerPoint presentation:
    • Graphics and data
    • Text to support the idea and graphic

88

top 10 tips for powerpoint
Top 10 Tips for PowerPoint
  • The audience’s eye will be drawn to one thing when they see the slide. Make sure it’s the most important.
  • Make sure everything is digestible in 20 seconds.
  • PowerPoint is a tool for displaying visual information but is terrible for written documentation.
  • Consider making your presentations and deliverables a mix of PowerPoint and Word.
  • Have take-aways that reinforce the idea and aren’t in a PowerPoint format. Ex: tip sheets as a class supplement
  • Use at least 18-24 size font and a Sans Serif font.
  • Use consistency in color schemes, punctuation, graphics, and nomenclature.
  • Avoid vague quantitative words, such as “very”, that leave the meaning up to the audience.
  • If a concept can be said with a picture, it will be better conveyed. However, don’t use graphics to decorate a few numbers.
  • Do not use this slide as an example of good design. It’s an example of what not to do.

89

text use in powerpoint
Text Use in PowerPoint
  • Keep phrasing clear, simple, and short.
  • Follow the 6x8 rule.
  • Limit text to 5 bullets at most.
  • Limit text to two outline levels.
  • Use parallel phrasing in bulleted lists.

90

slide91

EMAIL

  • PRESENTATIONS
  • DATA PRESENTATION

COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVLEY

91

tufte s 8 principles of data presentation
Tufte’s 8 Principles of Data Presentation
  • Show comparisons.
  • Show causality.
  • Show multi-variate data.
  • Integrate word, number, and image (i.e. show all evidence on diagram).
  • Document everything and tell everyone about it. Clearly state sources for data.
  • Presentations stand or fall based on quality, relevance, and integrity of content. What is your message?
  • Show information as long as you can adjacent in space vs. stacked in time.
  • Use small multiples. Show all the data; do not cherry pick. Showing all data helps gain credibility with the audience.

http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/

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Show comparisons.

# of soldiers at the beginning of the march vs. the end

Show causality.

View the temperature scale.

Show multi-variate data.

This diagram shows 6 dimensions: the size of the army, lat/longitude, temperature, dates, directions.

Tufte’s 8 Principles of Data Presentation

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Tufte’s 8 Principles of Data Presentation
  • Integrate word, number, and image (i.e. show all evidence on diagram).
    • Put labels in line and next to image.
    • Do not use legends/keys that require “back and forths”.

Exhibit A. Improper use of labels Exhibit B. Proper use of labels

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Tufte’s 8 Principles of Data Presentation
  • Document everything and tell everyone about it. Clearly state sources for data.
  • Presentations stand or fall based on quality, relevance, and integrity of content.
    • What is your message? What can you show to best support the thinking required to accept this message?
    • Ex: the message in the Napoleon poster is an anti-war message. All the content supports the case against war.
  • Show information as long as you can adjacent in space vs. stacked in time.

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Tufte’s 8 Principles of Data Presentation
  • Use small multiples. Show all the data; do not cherry pick. Showing all data helps gain credibility with the audience.

Graphic B: This graphic displays data in context

and reveals a very different message.

Graphic A: This graphic displays data out of context

and leaves most important questions unanswered.

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tufteism
Tufteism
  • Look for good examples in everyday lists of data presentation and use them.

London Underground Map

Financial Services

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