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Sugars & Sweeteners

Sugars & Sweeteners

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Sugars & Sweeteners

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  1. The range of sugars and sweeteners in food & beverage Sucrose based sugars Starch based sugars Sugar alcohols and other sweeteners Properties and areas of application Sugars & Sweeteners Lars Bo Jørgensen, Product Development Manager, Danisco Sugar Division, 2006

  2. It all started with honey !

  3. Sugar cane discovered in India

  4. Traditional European sweetening

  5. Developed into a broader range of sugars • White granular • Brown soft • Demerara • Muscovado • Cubes • Candy • Syrup

  6. Low and no calorie options • Aspartame • Acesulphame Kt • Sucralose • Saccharin • Maltodextrin

  7. Sugars and the Sweetener Family

  8. Sweetness Alitame HFCS Aspartame Sucrose Thaumatin Acesulfame-K Sorbitol 100 1000 0,1 10 10000 1 Saccharin Glucose Neotame Cyclamate Sucralose Fructose Glucose Syrup

  9. Basic Saccharides Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) Disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose) Trisaccharides (raffinose) Tetrasaccharides (stachyose) Pentasaccharides (verbascose) Glucose Fructose

  10. Basic Saccharides • Monosaccharides (simple sugars) glucose (galactose ) fructose • Disaccharides (two mono's) saccharose / sucrose, ”normal sugar” lactose, milk sugar maltose Sugars • Starch(>10 glucose units)

  11. Two Families of Sugars The Sucrose-based family Beet sugars Cane sugars Invert sugar Fructose The Starch-based family Glucose syrups Glucose/dextrose High Fructose Corn Syrup Isoglucose

  12. Beet and Cane Sugar Pure white sugar made from beet and cane is the same chemical molecule, the di-saccharide sucrose.

  13. Sucrose Production Cutting & pressing Extraction with hot water Juice purification with lime and carbon dioxide Filtration Evaporation / concentration Crystallisation Re-crystallisation Drying Raw juice Thick juice Raw sugar

  14. Danisco Sugar’s head office Sales offices Other production Sugar factories Nordic Sugar factories Denmark Nakskov Assens Nykøbing Sweden Örtofta Arlöv Finland Salo Säkylä Kantvik Germany Anklam Lithuania Panévezys Kédainiai

  15. Beet Sugar Products Beets Beet sugar factory Molasses White sugar Liquid Granulated

  16. Invert Sugar Sucrose Glucose Fructose Invert sugar is a mixture of equal amounts of glucose and fructose. Invert sugar is a liquid product made from inversion of sucrose

  17. Cane sugar products "JAGGERY" "TURBINADO" RAW SUGAR PLANT FACTORY MOLASSES CANE MILLING PURIFICATION EVAPORATION CRYSTALLISATION RAW SUGAR REFINERY REFINERY MOLASSES CRYSTALLISATION CRYSTALLISATION CRYSTALLISATION CRYSTALLISATION CRYSTALLISATION "DEMERARA" "MUSCOVADO" REFINED SUGAR

  18. The Difference between Beet and Cane Sugar Sucrose crystal Syrup layer Syrup inclusions The difference is the quality of the syrup left on and in the crystals !

  19. Where does the taste come from ? • Components in the cane syrup/molasses define the taste. • The syrup/molasses contain: • Sucrose • Glucose • Fructose • Salts • Organic acids • Amino compounds • Other components from the sugar cane. • Various caramel and Maillard products from the sugar processing step

  20. Sugars from starch Starch (wheat, maize,..) Acid, amylase Glucose syrups, Low DE Glucoamylase Glucose syrups, High DE Glucose, dextrose Isomerase Glucose syrup Glucose + Fructose syrup 42% Fructose, 54% Glucose Chromatography High Fructose syrup 55% - 90% Fructose

  21. Basic Sweetness of Glucose Syrups STARCH MALTODEXTRIN DE 4-20 GLUCOSE SYRUP DE 30 GLUCOSE SYRUP DE 40 GLUCOSE SYRUP DE 60 GLUCOSE SYRUP DE 90 GLUCOSE /DEXTROSEDE 100

  22. Various starch based sugars STARCH A A + D  AMG  + AMG   DE 0-55 DE 42 DE 63 Maltodextr. Enzyme Very high High dext. high High low DE high maltose liquor Maltose Maltose glucose maltose <30 DE X Dextrose H H H GI Hydrog.glucose- Maltitol Fructose- Sorbitol syrup syrups A = acid;  =  -amylase;  =  - amylase; AMG = amylo-glucosidase; D = debranching enzyme; H = hydrogenation; GI = glucose isomerase; X = crystallization

  23. Sugar alcohols (polyols) Properties of sugar alcohols : • neutral taste with cooling effect • laxative in bigger doses • low energy • 40-100% sweetness of sucrose • oral health (xylitol) Production routes for sugar alcohols

  24. High Intensive Sweeteners ASPARTAME ACESULFAME K SACCHARIN CYCLAMATE SUCRALOSE

  25. Sugars from other sources Palm sugar Maple sugar & syrup Birch sap

  26. Summary of basic properties * dry basis

  27. Functional Properties of Sugars

  28. HFCS / Isoglucose Offers sweetening, bulking, and preservation Adds water Glucose syrup Bulking, but half sweetness of sugar Sugar Alcohols Special sensory effects Bulking Reduced calorie effect High Intensity Sweeteners Only sweetening Varying stability with pH, time and heat Off-taste and after-taste Blending improve taste profiles No effective calories Functionality highlights – Alternatives to Sucrose • Key Issues • Not 100% sugar-like taste • Bulking effect is calories

  29. Key figures from the sweetener market Estimated Sweetener World Market 2004 Total 170 mill. Tonnes Sugar Equivalents Annual World Market Growth Source : LMC International Source : LMC International

  30. The Nordic market for sugar and sweeteners(2004/05) Source: Statistiska Sentralbyrån Norge, Danmarks Statistik, Statistiska Centralbyrån Sverige, Danisco Sugar * Crystalline fructose, polyols, excluding honey

  31. Application of Sugar and Alternative Sweeteners EU 15 Estimate Source : LMC International

  32. Application of Alternative Sweeteners in Food and Beverage EU 15 Estimate, Total 5 mill. Ton SE Source : LMC International

  33. Sugars in Fruits and Berries

  34. Sugars in Vegetables

  35. Whole Beet Sugar • Brown beet sugar with a pleasant taste and flavour like sugar cane. • A series of sugars with all the good stuff from the beets • sucrose • Arabinose, low GI • beet pectin, pre-biotic • Beet fibres • Molasses minerals • With a little cane syrup to boost taste/flavour

  36. Exploratory Competition – origin of 4 sugars Of the four syrup samples A-D presented in this box, please identify which are made from either sugar cane, sugar beet or wheat ! Fill in the form :