Psychology of Music MUSED 681. REMINDER Course Packet: $10 payable to Don Ester eJournal Feedback. The Nature of Musical Ability. SEASHORE MEASURES OF MUSICAL TALENTS (1919) Do you have musical aptitude? . The Nature of Musical Ability. Definition of terms
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Course Packet: $10 payable to Don Ester
SEASHORE MEASURES OF MUSICAL TALENTS (1919)
Do you have musical aptitude?
Definition of terms
Capacity, potential, aptitude, ability Often misused as synonymns
Ability:a particular talent or ACQUIRED skill
Aptitude:a natural talent or ability for something, especially one that is not yet fully developed.
Achievement: current level of mastery
Assessing aptitude in an effort to predict future achievement
All children (and adults) have some level of musical aptitude
What is the source of this aptitude?
Nature (Genetics) or Nurture (Environment)?
Public opinion = purely nature
“You have such a gift …”
How do we sort out genetic and environmental influences in research?
Studies of Twins
Consider pre-natal environmental influences
Drugs, stress, hormones, exposure to rhythm (heart beat), music, motherese NOT genetic (post conception), but how could we know?
Genetic factors influence general development in three broad ways
Maturational Staged Development
Is there a “music gene”, or many specific related genes (intonation gene, etc.)?
More on this when we address Physiology and Perception & Cognition
Genetics contributes primarily to the similarities between siblings
Environment contributes primarily to the dissimilarities between siblings
Shared Environmental Influences
Nonshared Environmental Influences
Nonshared are more important for development of personality characteristics
Most researchers (Csikszentmihalyi, Gordon) conclude that musical ability develops based on a complex and variable interaction of genetics and environment.
Absent Cause-Effect data (which is almost impossible to parce out and confirm), correlational data is valuable
Known aspects of the Covariation between genetics and environment
Learning process through which the individual grows into a musical culture, developing and adjusting his or her musical abilities, activities, ways of experiencing, and values in interrelation with the social, cultural, and material environment. (p. 19)
Situational ExpositionThe frequency and duration with which a person is exposed to a particular situation. (p. 18)
Pre-natal environment (discussed earlier)
Infant environment Motherese, stroking, rocking, walking/pacing
Singing (many parents don’t anymore)
Listening (radio, TV, CD)
Early childhood & childhood environment
General musical environment
US: 93% of 6-9 yr. olds hear music in leisure time; 98% of 12-14 MUCH larger influence than school music program, etc.
Key Parental Roles
Early and continuous support of parents; very active up until age 11, moving to intrinsic motivation
Observe and encourage child’s early musical responses
Careful choice of teachers
Key environmental factors maximizing
WHY measure musical aptitude?
There is nothing so unequal as the equal treatment of students of unequal ability.
Plato in The Republic
HOW measure musical aptitude? (sample recording)
The first music aptitude test Seashore Measures of Musical Talents 1919 (most recent revision in 1960)
Issues concerning the measurement of musical aptitude?
Atomistic vs. Gestalt
Psychophysiological vs. Musical
Normal Distribution of musical aptitude
Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP) 1965, Revised 1995
Developmental Music Aptitude Stage
Birth (conception?) - age 9
Interaction of innate potential and environment
Stabilized Music Aptitude Stage
Age 9 and beyond
No environemntal affects
Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP)
3 sections (stimuli played on violin & cello)
Sections 1 and 2: determine same vs. different; one dimension is changed Section 3: preference between two phrases
Gordon PMMA, IMMA, AMMA
Tonal and Rhythm sections only
Primary Measures of Music Audiation (1979, 1986)
Trial download: http://www.giamusic.com/products/P-2242.cfm
Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (1979, 1986)
Grades 1-4 (same design; advanced content)
Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (1989)
Per the text, Howe and Cattell maintain that “the close analysis of any ability is impossible without an understanding of three ‘modalities’: ability, personality, and motivation” (p. 5). Do you agree?
How would you measure musical aptitude?
(Have your thoughts changed?)
How would you use aptitude data?
Understanding Music Aptitude article
Traits to consider?
Physical Traits Lips, fingers, jaw/teeth, hands, other
Ring vs. Index finger of LH!!??
Introversion: significant level of self-sufficiency (not “shyness”)
Addressed later in the term
Test 1: Pitch Discrimination, Interval Discrimination, Meter Discrimination
Test 2: Major-Minor Mode Discrimination, Feeling For Tonal Center,
Test 3: Tonal Memory, Melody Recognition, Pitch Recognition,
Test 4: Musical Style (composers, texture), Auditory-Visual Discrimination,
Chord Recognition, Cadence Recognition
Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale
How would YOU test for musical achievement?
Research indicates that music aptitude is developmental during the early years of life. A child's aptitude at birth is innate, but can fluctuate until about age nine according to the richness and diversity of musical experiences the child undergoes. After age nine, one cannot expect to achieve in music beyond the limit of one's stabilized music aptitude. It is essential that children receive lots of high quality informal guidance and formal instruction in music in order to best realize their potential for musical fulfillment throughout life. Informal music experience prior to age five is particularly important. (Gordon)
Format & Length
see Update Contributor Guidelines http://dester.iweb.bsu.edu/
see sample Update articles (and packet chapters) Cognition and motor execution in Piano Sight-Reading: A Review of Literature Sight-Reading Ability in Wind and Percussion Students: A Review of Recent Literature
Initial Prospectus Due Sept. 25