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Psychology of Music MUSED 681. REMINDER Course Packet: $10 payable to Don Ester eJournal Feedback. The Nature of Musical Ability. SEASHORE MEASURES OF MUSICAL TALENTS (1919) Do you have musical aptitude? . The Nature of Musical Ability. Definition of terms

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psychology of music mused 681
Psychology of Music MUSED 681

REMINDER

Course Packet: $10 payable to Don Ester

eJournal Feedback

the nature of musical ability
The Nature of Musical Ability

SEASHORE MEASURES OF MUSICAL TALENTS (1919)

Do you have musical aptitude? 

the nature of musical ability3
The Nature of Musical Ability

Definition of terms

Capacity, potential, aptitude, ability Often misused as synonymns

Ability:a particular talent or ACQUIRED skill

Aptitude:a natural talent or ability for something, especially one that is not yet fully developed.

Achievement: current level of mastery

Assessing aptitude in an effort to predict future achievement

the nature of musical ability4
The Nature of Musical Ability

All children (and adults) have some level of musical aptitude

What is the source of this aptitude?

Nature (Genetics) or Nurture (Environment)?

Public opinion = purely nature

“You have such a gift …”

True?

nature or nurture
Nature or Nurture

How do we sort out genetic and environmental influences in research?

Studies of Twins

Consider pre-natal environmental influences

Drugs, stress, hormones, exposure to rhythm (heart beat), music, motherese NOT genetic (post conception), but how could we know?

nature or nurture6
Nature or Nurture

Genetic factors influence general development in three broad ways

Maturational Staged Development

Physical Capacity

Mental Capacity

Is there a “music gene”, or many specific related genes (intonation gene, etc.)?

More on this when we address Physiology and Perception & Cognition

nature or nurture7
Nature or Nurture

Genetics contributes primarily to the similarities between siblings

Environment contributes primarily to the dissimilarities between siblings

nature or nurture8
Nature or Nurture

Shared Environmental Influences

  • Socio-economics of family
  • Parent’s musical interests
  • Educational opportunity
nature or nurture9
Nature or Nurture

Nonshared Environmental Influences

  • Placement of sibling (oldest, middle child, etc.)
  • Different friend groups
  • Varied musical experiences

Nonshared are more important for development of personality characteristics

nature or nurture10
Nature or Nurture

Most researchers (Csikszentmihalyi, Gordon) conclude that musical ability develops based on a complex and variable interaction of genetics and environment.

Absent Cause-Effect data (which is almost impossible to parce out and confirm), correlational data is valuable

nature or nurture11
Nature or Nurture

Known aspects of the Covariation between genetics and environment

  • Passive Child is “subjected” to the environment (parents “allow” him/her to sing in the car)
  • Reactive (Evocative) Child/Adolescent reacts to environment based on unique traits, which in turn evokes different environmental responses (parents, teachers, etc.)
  • Active Child/Adolescent/Adult actively selects or shapes environment to meet needs
environmental influences
Environmental Influences

Musical Socialization

Learning process through which the individual grows into a musical culture, developing and adjusting his or her musical abilities, activities, ways of experiencing, and values in interrelation with the social, cultural, and material environment. (p. 19)

environmental influences13
Environmental Influences

Situational ExpositionThe frequency and duration with which a person is exposed to a particular situation. (p. 18)

environmental influences14
Environmental Influences

Pre-natal environment (discussed earlier)

Infant environment Motherese, stroking, rocking, walking/pacing

Singing (many parents don’t anymore)

Listening (radio, TV, CD)

environmental influences15
Environmental Influences

Early childhood & childhood environment

General musical environment

US: 93% of 6-9 yr. olds hear music in leisure time; 98% of 12-14 MUCH larger influence than school music program, etc.

Concert attendance

environmental influences16
Environmental Influences

Key Parental Roles

Early and continuous support of parents; very active up until age 11, moving to intrinsic motivation

Observe and encourage child’s early musical responses

Careful choice of teachers

environmental influences17
Environmental Influences

Key environmental factors maximizing

musical development

  • Early frequent and casual exposure to musical stimuli
  • Opportunities over an extended period of time to explore musical media
  • Early opportunities in music to experience intense positive emotional or aesthetic states
  • An opportunity to amass significant hours of practice
  • An opportunity to consistently observe and/or study with role models
music aptitude tests
Music Aptitude Tests

WHY measure musical aptitude?

Consider/Discuss:

There is nothing so unequal as the equal treatment of students of unequal ability.

Plato in The Republic

HOW measure musical aptitude? (sample recording)

music aptitude tests19
Music Aptitude Tests

The first music aptitude test Seashore Measures of Musical Talents 1919 (most recent revision in 1960)

music aptitude tests20
Music Aptitude Tests

Issues concerning the measurement of musical aptitude?

Atomistic vs. Gestalt

Psychophysiological vs. Musical

music aptitude tests21
Music Aptitude Tests

Reliability

Validity

  • Formal, Content
  • Predictive

Normal Distribution of musical aptitude

music aptitude tests22
Music Aptitude Tests

Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP) 1965, Revised 1995

Developmental Music Aptitude Stage

Birth (conception?) - age 9

Interaction of innate potential and environment

Stabilized Music Aptitude Stage

Age 9 and beyond

No environemntal affects

music aptitude tests23
Music Aptitude Tests

Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP)

Grades 5-12

3 sections (stimuli played on violin & cello)

  • Tonal (Melody & Harmony)
  • Rhythm (Tempo and Meter)
  • Musical Sensitivity (Phrasing, Balance, and Style)

Sections 1 and 2: determine same vs. different; one dimension is changed Section 3: preference between two phrases

music aptitude tests24
Music Aptitude Tests

Gordon PMMA, IMMA, AMMA

Tonal and Rhythm sections only

Primary Measures of Music Audiation (1979, 1986)

Grades K-3

Trial download: http://www.giamusic.com/products/P-2242.cfm

Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (1979, 1986)

Grades 1-4 (same design; advanced content)

Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (1989)

College Students

music aptitude tests25
Music Aptitude Tests

Per the text, Howe and Cattell maintain that “the close analysis of any ability is impossible without an understanding of three ‘modalities’: ability, personality, and motivation” (p. 5). Do you agree?

music aptitude tests26
Music Aptitude Tests

How would you measure musical aptitude?

(Have your thoughts changed?)

How would you use aptitude data?

Understanding Music Aptitude article

instrument selection assignment
Instrument Selection & Assignment

Traits to consider?

Physical Traits Lips, fingers, jaw/teeth, hands, other

Ring vs. Index finger of LH!!??

Empirical evidence

Personality, Motivation

personality effects
Personality Effects

CORRELATIONAL Research

Introversion: significant level of self-sufficiency (not “shyness”)

  • Isolation during practice time
  • Private/independent creativity
motivation effects
Motivation Effects

Addressed later in the term

music achievement tests
Music Achievement Tests

Colwell MAT

Test 1: Pitch Discrimination, Interval Discrimination, Meter Discrimination

Test 2: Major-Minor Mode Discrimination, Feeling For Tonal Center,

Auditory-Visual Discrimination

Test 3: Tonal Memory, Melody Recognition, Pitch Recognition,

Instrument Recognition

Test 4: Musical Style (composers, texture), Auditory-Visual Discrimination,

Chord Recognition, Cadence Recognition

music achievement tests32
Music Achievement Tests

Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale

music achievement tests33
Music Achievement Tests

How would YOU test for musical achievement?

aptitude and achievement
Aptitude and Achievement

Research indicates that music aptitude is developmental during the early years of life. A child's aptitude at birth is innate, but can fluctuate until about age nine according to the richness and diversity of musical experiences the child undergoes. After age nine, one cannot expect to achieve in music beyond the limit of one's stabilized music aptitude. It is essential that children receive lots of high quality informal guidance and formal instruction in music in order to best realize their potential for musical fulfillment throughout life. Informal music experience prior to age five is particularly important. (Gordon)

research projects
Research Projects

Guidelines

Format & Length

see Update Contributor Guidelines http://dester.iweb.bsu.edu/

Content

see sample Update articles (and packet chapters) Cognition and motor execution in Piano Sight-Reading: A Review of Literature Sight-Reading Ability in Wind and Percussion Students: A Review of Recent Literature

Initial Prospectus Due Sept. 25

Idea Sharing

next week
Next Week
  • Reading assignments
    • See 681 web site links:
      • Sound, Physics, and Music
        • Explore the four areas under Basic Concepts (Table of Contents on left)
      • Science Friday
        • Listen to archived audio
        • Read/explore info by clicking “Lend an ear to the physics of music” link
        • View/read information under Related Links
          • Music Physics
  • eJournal due Wednesday 8 AM
  • Continue work on Research Project
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Safe Travels

SAFE TRAVELS