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Module 3: Exploring the options. SWITCH Training Kit Module 3C: Sustainable wastewater management An overview. The issues facing urban wastewater management. Urbanisation. Population growth. Environmental impacts. Energy costs.

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Module 3: Exploring the options

SWITCH Training Kit

Module 3C: Sustainable wastewater management

An overview

the issues facing urban wastewater management
The issues facing urban wastewater management

Urbanisation

Population growth

Environmental impacts

Energy costs

links between urban wastewater management and other areas of the water sector
Links between urban wastewater management and other areas of the water sector

Water treatment

Stormwater management

Water supply

Water quality

links between wastewater management and other sectors of urban management
Links between wastewater management and other sectors of urban management

Energy

Housing

Parks, gardens and recreation

Farming

Local economic development

Health

the conventional approach
The conventional approach
  • Wastewater network to collect all wastewater streams from individual buildings
  • Combined sewers
  • Centralised treatment
  • Discharge of treated effluent to receiving water bodies and disposal of sludge by-product
drawbacks of the conventional approach to urban wastewater management
Drawbacks of the conventional approach to urban wastewater management
  • Pollution risk
  • Cost
  • Carbon emissions
  • Failure to make use of resources
  • Non-flexible
a more sustainable approach
A more sustainable approach
  • Separating wastewater flows such as urine, blackwater, greywater, industrial wastewater and stormwater at source
  • Employing appropriate treatment methods (including natural systems) for different wastewater flows
  • Reusing wastewater for different purposes
a more sustainable approach1
A more sustainable approach
  • Urine diversion toilets
  • Greywater reuse systems
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT)
  • Waste stabilisation ponds
  • Bio-energy production

Non-conventional wastewater treatment and reuse options include:

urban ecohydrology
Urban ecohydrology

Source: Zalewski, Wagner, (2008)

benefits of non conventional wastewater management solutions
Benefits of non-conventional wastewater management solutions
  • Increased access to sanitation
  • Water savings
  • Flexibility to change
  • Reuse of nutrients for agriculture
  • Financial savings
  • Energy recovery
  • Improved treatment
why non conventional wastewater management solutions are more sustainable
Why non-conventional wastewater management solutions are more sustainable

Improved sanitation coverage

Amenity value

Creation of renewable resources

Low investment and maintenance costs

Reduced risk of contaminated effluent being discharged to the environment

Reduced carbon emissions

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Acknowledgements

This presentation has been produced as part of the SWITCH Training Kit by:

Ralph Philip and Barbara Anton

ICLEI – Local Government’s for Sustainability

based on the joint efforts of the following SWITCH partners:

J.M. Cai (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Y, Feng (Hamburg University of Technology), Y. Hu (Hamburg University of Technology), W.H. Ji (Chinese Academy of Sciences), K. Kujawa (Wageningen University), A. Mels (Wageningen University), R. Otterpohl (Hamburg University of Technology), A. Roman (Hamburg University of Technology), M. Sanz (UNESCO-IHE), M. Snel (IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre), N. Stoll (Hamburg University of Technology), F. Tettenborn (Hamburg University of Technology), R. van Veenhuizen (ETC Foundation), E. von Münch (UNESCO-IHE), M. Winker (Hamburg University of Technology), A. Adin (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), A. Aharoni (Mekorot), G. Amy (UNESCO-IHE), H. Cikurel (Mekorot), D.J. Conran (University of Birmingham), A. Drobniewska (University of Lodz), P.A. Ellis (University of Birmingham), W. Fratczak (University of Lodz), R.B. Greswell (University of Birmingham), K. Izydorczyk (University of Lodz), C. Lydon (University of Birmingham), M.O. Rivett (University of Birmingham), D. Rousseau (UNESCO-IHE), S.K. Sharma (UNESCO-IHE), H. van Bruggen (UNESCO-IHE), I. Wagner (University of Lodz), M. Zalewski (University of Lodz)

The UNESCO-IHE led SWITCH project runs from Feb. 2006 to Jan. 2011 and is part-financed by Directorate General Research of the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme. For more information see www.switchurbanwater.eu