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EU-West Africa EPA 17 September 2014 The International Trade Union House, Bv du Roi Albert II, 5, 1210 Brussels. How to assess the West Africa EPA?. Dr San BILAL Achievements. Successful conclusion… …at regional level… …before 1 October 2014

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How to assess the West Africa EPA?

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EU-West Africa EPA17 September 2014The International Trade Union House, Bv du Roi Albert II, 5, 1210 Brussels

How to assess the West Africa EPA?


  • Successful conclusion…
  • …at regional level…
  • …before 1 October 2014
  • regional unity & integrity preserved
  • based on ECOWAS CET
  • no trade disruption


some key features of the epa
Some key features of the EPA
  • Focus on market access for goods
  • DFQF access to EU (100% liberalisation)
  • West Africa liberalises:

75% of tariff lines

over 20 years

  • Policy space: trade defense instruments
  • Community levied maintained (until new financing mechanism)
  • No EU agricultural export subsidies
  • MNF not automatic
  • No explicit non-execution clause (Cotonou ref)
  • Development chapter: PAPED (no additionality)
main products excluded
Main products excluded
  • Preparation of vegetables, fruits and nuts
  • Other edible preparation such as tea, coffee, sauces, seasonings etc.
  • Beverages (alcoholic – mainly beers and spirits) and non-alcoholic (table water etc.)
  • Tobacco
  • Cement
  • Pharmaceutical products;
  • Paint, varnish and mastic
  • Perfumery, cosmetic and toilet preparation;
  • Soaps and washing preparation; waxes
  • Glues; pyrotechnic products;
  • Articles of plastic; Rubber articles; leather products; wood and wood articles; paper, paperboard and articles of paper pulp; printed books and newspapers
  • Cotton (thread); other vegetable textile fibres, yarn and fabrics;
  • Man made fibres; some woven fabrics; some knitted and crocheted fabric;
  • Articles of apparel and clothing accessories;
  • Glassware; some articles of iron and steel; copper and nickel
  • Tools and cutlery of base metals; some machinery and mechanical appliances; some electric machinery;
  • Some furniture and mattress support (wood and metal); lighting and fittings
  • Meat and meat products; Preparation of meat; fresh, chilled and frozen fish and fish products; preparation of fish products
  • Milk and dairy products
  • Vegetable products such as edible vegetables, fruits, nuts, some cereals (rice), products of milling industry (different types of flour);
  • Animal and vegetable fats and oils and prepared edible fats
  • Sugar and sugar confectionary;
  • Cocoa and cocoa preparations;
  • Preparation of cereals, flour, starch and milk
policy space
Policy space?
  • Existing export taxes are maintained; possibility to introduce new taxes for infant industries, revenue needs and environmental protection on a limited number of products and after consultations with the EU side
  • Safeguard measures applicable for 4 years, renewable once
  • Specific safeguard clause for infant industries, for up to 8 years and can be renewed
assessing social impact
Assessing social impact

= Identify sensitive import-competing sectors

  • Employment per sector/products: nb, gender, youth, work conditions, etc.
  • SMEs, informal, competition (monopoly?)
  • Analysis per country/province?
  • Loss of fiscal revenues?
  • Support policies and measures?

=> Likely effects: concentrated in some sectors/products in some countries/provinces on some categories of workers/population

Thank you


Ramdoo, Isabelle (2014), ECOWAS and SADC EPAs:

A comparative analysis, ECDPM Discussion Paper 165

Dr San Bilal

Head of Economic Transformation and Trade

Editor of GREAT Insights

Twitter @SanBilal1