current paradigms in psychopathology and therapy l.
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Current Paradigms in Psychopathology and Therapy. Past and Present Tomàs, J . What is a paradigm?. What do you think???. A Paradigm:. is a conceptual framework to examine a given phenomenon. has a set of basic assumptions .

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what is a paradigm
What is a paradigm?
  • What do you think???
a paradigm
A Paradigm:
  • is a conceptual framework to examine a given phenomenon.
  • has a set of basic assumptions.

Determines which methods (data collection, analysis) will be used to study a given phenomenon.

paradigms in abnormal psychology
Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology
  • Biological
  • Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytical)
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic
a biological paradigm disease model
A. Biological Paradigm: Disease Model
  • Basic assumptions:
  • 1. Biology plays a role in pathological behavior.
  • 2. Psychopathology is caused by disease.
flaws with biological model
Flaws with Biological model
  • 1. Factors unrelated to biology may influence the onset of psychopathology.

E.g., environmental factors (life-style, abuse) may play role in some mental disorders (depression).

  • 2. Multiple factors may influence onset of psychopathology.
evidence that biology plays a role comes from 2 sources
Evidence that biology plays a role comes from 2 sources:
  • 1. Behavioral Genetics – examines how much of individual differences in behavior are due to genetic makeup.
  • 2. Biochemistry in the nervous system
behavioral genetics theory
Behavioral Genetics: Theory
  • Genotype – the physiological genetic constitution of a person. (fixed at birth, but not static)
  • Phenotype- the observable expression of our genes (changes over time & is product of interaction with genotype & environment).
  • E.g., A child may be hard-wired for high intellectual achievement, but will need environmental stimulation to produce development.
we may have a biological predisposition for a mental disorder
We may have a biological predisposition for a mental disorder.
  • This is called a Diathesis.
  • Does having a diathesis automatically mean you will develop the mental disorder?
slide12
No!!!!
  • It will depend on how your biology interacts with environmental factors (parental rearing, peers)
how do we study behavior genetics
How do we study behavior genetics?
  • 1. Family members
  • 2. Twin studies
  • 3. Adoption studies
  • 4. Linkage analysis
family members
Family Members:
  • Studies the 1st & 2nd degree relatives of individual with a given mental disorder.
  • 1st-degree relatives-parents & siblings (50%-shared genes)
  • 2nd-degree relatives-aunts, uncles (25%-shared genes)
  • Are compared with index cases (probands).
if there is a genetic predisposition
If there is a genetic predisposition:
  • 1st degree relatives of the index case(s), should have the disorder at a higher rate than in the general pop.
  • E.g., 10% of 1st degree relatives of index cases with schizophrenia can be diagnosed with schizophrenia
twin method
Twin method
  • Monozygotic (100% shared genes) & dizygotic twins (50% shared genes) are compared.
  • Start with diagnosis of one twin & see if other twin develops same disorder.
  • When twins are similarly diagnosed, they are said to be concordant.
if disorder is heritable concordance rate will be higher for mz than for dz twins
If disorder is heritable-- concordance rate will be higher for MZ than for DZ twins.
  • Problems:
  • 1. May reflect environmental factors.
adoption studies
Adoption studies
  • Examine children who were adopted & reared apart from their “abnormal” parents.
  • Reduces environmental influences, should reflect effect of genetics.
linkage analysis
Linkage Analysis:
  • Uses DNA blood testing to examine the influence of genetics inmental disorders.
b psychodynamic paradigm
B. Psychodynamic Paradigm:
  • Argues that our behavior results from unconscious conflicts.
  • Conflicts are outside of our awareness (iceberg theory).
structures of mind
Structures of mind:
  • 1. Id (unconscious) “wants” to satisfy basic urges (thirst, hunger, sex).
  • 2. Ego (primarily conscious) tries to satisfy id impulses without breaking societal norms.
  • 3. Super-ego (conscious) our morality center which tells us right from wrong.
psychosexual stages of development
Psychosexual stages of development
  • 1. Oral (birth to 1 yr)- needs gratified orally (sucking).

2. Anal (2yr)-needs met- through elimination of waste.

  • 3. Phallic (3-5 yrs)-needs met through genital stimulation.
  • 4. Latency (6-12 yrs)-impulses dormant.
  • 5. Genital (13+)-needs met through intercourse.
defense mechanisms unconscious protect ego from anxiety
Defense mechanisms- unconscious & protect ego from anxiety.
  • Repression
  • Projection
  • Reaction formation
  • Displacement
  • Denial
  • rationalization
problems
Problems:
  • 1.  Freud had no scientific data to support his theories.
  • 2. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed.
  • 3.  Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact.
  • 4. Observations not representative of population.
freud s therapy
Freud’s therapy
  • Premise—we have repressed information in unconscious that needs to come out.
  • How???
  • Free-association, dream analysis, hypnosis.
c behavior paradigm
C. Behavior paradigm
  • Focuses on observable behaviors.
  • Premise—abnormal behavior is learned!!
  • Learning (classical & operant conditioning, modeling)
classical conditioning
Classical conditioning
  • Pavlov’s study:
  • Step 1: Meat Powder (UCS)---Salivation (UCR)
  • Step 2: Bell (CS) ---- Salivation (UCR)
  • -Meat Powder (UCS)----
  • Step 3: Bell (CS)---------Salivation (CR)
conditioning emotional responses watson raynor
Conditioning emotional responses: Watson & Raynor
  • Classically conditioned 11-month-old infant to fear white rats (Santa beard, cotton).
  • Presented infant with cute white rat—child showed interest in rat, was then presented with a loud noise (startle response).
operant conditioning
Operant conditioning:
  • Desired behaviors are reinforced (positive, negative), whereas undesirable behaviors are extinguished (punishment).
modeling albert bandura
Modeling (Albert Bandura)
  • We learn how to behavior, by watching others.
  • Whether we will produce a given behavior is determined by whether we have seen it reinforced or punished.(Famous Bobo Doll study)
behavioral therapies
Behavioral therapies
  • Systematic desensitization (phobias, anxiety)
  • Flooding (phobias, anxiety)
  • Aversion conditioning (pedophiles)
criticisms of theory
Criticisms of theory:
  • 1. Abnormal behavior not connected to particular learning experiences (schizophrenia).
  • 2. Simplistic circular reasoning (Description as explanation).
  • 3. Useful for treatment, but not as cause for most mental disorders.
cognitive
Cognitive:
  • Premise- how we organize and interpret information
  • Criticism of Cognitive Paradigm
  • Concepts are slippery, not well defined.
  • cognitive explanations do not explain much
  • E.g., depressed person has negative cognition--I am worthless.
therapy
Therapy
  • Cognitive-Behavioral therapy
  • Rational Emotive therapy
e humanistic
E. Humanistic:
  • Theorists argue we are driven to self-actualize, that is, to fulfill our potential for goodness and growth.
roger s humanistic therapy
Roger’s Humanistic therapy
  • We all have a basic need to receive positive regard from the important people in our lives (parents).
  • Those who receive unconditional positive regard early in life are likely to develop unconditional self-regard.
  • That is, they come to recognize their worth as persons, even while recognizing that they are not perfect. Such people are in good shape to actualize their positive potential.