Vowel Transcription - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Vowel Transcription

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  1. Vowel Transcription

  2. What is a VOWEL? Vowels are phonemes that are produced without any appreciable constriction or blockage of air flow in the vocal tract. See Table 4.1 for a description of vowel in English

  3. Vowel articulators • Tongue – primary articulator of vowels • Jaw/mandible - movements • Pharynx – size and shape

  4. Airstream • Passes through vocal cavity with virtually no obstruction by the tongue or other major articulators

  5. Production • Vowel phonemes are categorized in relation to the position of the body of the tongue in the mouth • Tongue height – refers to how high or low in the oral cavity the tongue is when producing the vowel. • Tongue advancement – how far forward or backward in the mouth the tongue is when producing a particular vowel

  6.  Vowel Quadrilateral

  7. Vowel quadrilateral and tongue

  8. Vowel quadrilateral and tongue

  9. Tongue positions

  10. Empty vowel chart

  11. Vowel Chart • Which IPA symbols go with each word????

  12. Vowel Chart • Which IPA symbols go with each word????

  13. Lip Configuration • Roundness • Retracted

  14. Roundness

  15. Tenseness • Tense – usually longer in duration and require more muscular effort • Capable of ending stressed open syllables • Lax • Never end a stressed open syllable

  16. Tenseness

  17. Types of vowels • Monophones – have one primary articulatory position in the vocal tract. • Diphthongs – have two distinct articulatory positions; two vowels which comprise one • Onglide – first element of a diphthong • Offglide – second element of a diphthong • In English the offglide is produced at a higher position than the onglide

  18. Diphthongs • // • // • // • // • //

  19. Draw lines starting in the onglide and ending in offglide.

  20. Front vowels • /i/,//, /e/, /e/, //, //

  21. /i/ • Highest and most fronted of all vowel • One of the point vowels • Lips retracted, • Tense – capable of ending one-syllable open words

  22. /I/ • High vowel • Is lax • Occurs in closed syllables • Used in words with unstressed syllables ending in “y” – “crazy” or when preceding “ng” • Rhotic vowel /Ir/ “hear”

  23. /e, e I / • High-mid vowel • Retracted • Tense • /eI / - stressed • /e I / this diphthong is an allophonic variation • /e I / Used in stressed syllables and at end of words regardless of stress

  24. // • Known as the Epsilon • Low mid front vowel • Retracted and lax • Often occurs in front of /r/ - “hair”, “”fair”

  25. // • Lowest of five point vowels • Retractedand lax • No monosyllable end with //

  26. Front vowel sounds visual Front vowel sounds

  27. Back vowels • /u/, //, //, //, //, /a

  28. /u/ • One of the two highest vowels (together with /i/ • Considered another point/corner vowel • Rounded, tense • Found at the end of one syllable words • Is preceded by /j/ in words such as “few,music,few/

  29. // • High vowel • Rounded and lax • No open syllable ends with // • Rhotic vowel /r/ - “tour, lure”

  30. /o/, /o/ • High mid, rounded, tense • Like /e/, the stressed form takes a diphthong /o/, an allophone • Similar to /eI/, the /o/ is used with words that end with this sound

  31. // • Open ‘o’ • Rounded, back, tense • Not used too much, and usually replaced by // • Rhotic vowel /r/ ‘corn, bored, foreign’

  32. // • Low-back, retracted, tense • Point vowel • The only retracted back vowel • Many used instead of // • Rhotic vowel /r/ - bark, art

  33. back vowel sounds visual Back vowel sounds

  34. Central vowels • //,//, //, //, //

  35. //, // • Schwa and turned v • Retracted and lax • Vocal tract in its most neutral configuration • // - unstressed, // stressed • Turned v usually does not occur in open syllables except for the word “the” • May be confused for //

  36. //, // • // schwar • Rhotacization • // Rounded and lax • // Rounded and tense, the only central vowels that is tense, found at the end of one syllable words • // Produced in unstressed syllables • //Produced in stressed syllables • May be confused with other rhotic vowels -/Ir/, /r/

  37. // • Occurs in diphthongs /I/ - ‘kite’

  38. back vowel sounds visual Back vowel sounds