Myers psychology 7th ed
Download
1 / 36

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed). Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers. Waking Consciousness. Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments. Sleep and Dreams. Biological Rhythms periodic physiological fluctuations

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - bond


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Myers psychology 7th ed
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

Chapter 7

States of Consciousness

James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers


Waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness

  • Consciousness

    • our awareness of ourselves and our environments


Sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams

  • Biological Rhythms

    • periodic physiological fluctuations

  • Circadian Rhythm

    • the biological clock

    • regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature


Premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual Syndrome

3

Recalled mood is

worse than

earlier reported

Negative mood

score

2

1

Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual

Menstrual phase

Recalled mood

Actual


Sleep and dreams1
Sleep and Dreams

  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep

    • recurring sleep stage

    • vivid dreams

    • “paradoxical sleep”

      • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active

  • Sleep

    • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness


Sleep and dreams2
Sleep and Dreams

  • Measuring sleep activity


Brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages

  • Alpha Waves

    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain

  • Delta Waves

    • large, slow waves of deep sleep

  • Hallucinations

    • false sensory experiences


Stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep


Stages in a typical night s sleep1

Minutes

of

Stage 4 and

REM

Decreasing

Stage 4

25

20

15

Increasing

REM

10

5

0

1

2

5

6

7

8

3

4

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep


Sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation

  • Effects of Sleep Loss

    • fatigue

    • impaired concentration

    • depressed immune system

    • greater vulnerability to accidents


Sleep deprivation1

Accident

frequency

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

Sleep Deprivation


Sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders

  • Insomnia

    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep

  • Narcolepsy

    • uncontrollable sleep attacks

  • Sleep Apnea

    • temporary cessation of breathing

    • momentary reawakenings


Night terrors and nightmares

Sleep

stages

Awake

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Night Terrors and Nightmares

  • Night Terrors

    • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4

    • high arousal-- appearance of being terrified


Dreams freud
Dreams: Freud

  • Dreams

    • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind

    • hallucinatory imagery

    • discontinuities

    • incongruities

    • delusional acceptance of the content

    • difficulties remembering


Dreams freud1
Dreams: Freud

  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)

    • wish fulfillment

    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings

  • Manifest Content

    • remembered story line

  • Latent Content

    • underlying meaning


Dreams
Dreams

  • As Information Processing

    • helps facilitate memories

  • REM Rebound

    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation



Hypnosis
Hypnosis

  • Hypnosis

    • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

  • Posthypnotic Amnesia

    • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis

    • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion


Hypnosis1
Hypnosis

  • Unhypnotized persons can also do this


Hypnosis2
Hypnosis

  • Orne & Evans (1965)

    • control group instructed to “pretend”

    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones

  • Posthypnotic Suggestion

    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized

    • used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors


Hypnosis3
Hypnosis

  • Dissociation

    • a split in consciousness

    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

  • Hidden Observer

    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis



Drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness

  • Psychoactive Drug

    • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

  • Physical Dependence

    • physiological need for a drug

    • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

  • Psychological Dependence

    • a psychological need to use a drug

    • for example, to relieve negative emotions


Dependence and addiction

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

Dependence and Addiction

  • Tolerance

    • diminishing effect with regular use

  • Withdrawal

    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use


Psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Depressants

    • drugs that reduce neural activity

    • slow body functions

      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates

  • Stimulants

    • drugs that excite neural activity

    • speed up body functions

      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine


Psychoactive drugs1
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Hallucinogens

    • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

      • LSD


Psychoactive drugs2
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Barbiturates

    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement


Psychoactive drugs3
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Opiates

    • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)

    • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety


Psychoactive drugs4
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Amphetamines

    • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes



Psychoactive drugs5
Psychoactive Drugs

  • Ecstasy (MDMA)

    • synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen

    • both short-term and long-term health risks

  • LSD

    • lysergic acid diethylamide

    • a powerful hallucinogenic drug

    • also known as acid

  • THC

    • the major active ingredient in marijuana

    • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations



Trends in drug use

80%

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

High school

seniors

reporting

drug use

Alcohol

Marijuana/

hashish

Cocaine

1975 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99

Year

Trends in Drug Use


Perceived marijuana risk

100%

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Perceived “great risk of

harm” in marijuana use

Percent

of

twelfth

graders

Used marijuana

‘75 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99

Year

Perceived Marijuana Risk


Near death experiences
Near-Death Experiences

  • Near-Death Experience

    • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death

    • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations


Near death experiences1
Near-Death Experiences

  • Dualism

    • the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

  • Monism

    • the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing