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Forces That Drive Reactions - Entropy. Entropy (∆S). Entropy is a measure of disorder Matter tends to attain minimum potential energy = Enthalpy. Matter tends to attain maximum randomness = Entropy. Entropy  least organized, most random state possible. ∆S Formula.

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entropy s
Entropy (∆S)
  • Entropy is a measure of disorder
  • Matter tends to attain minimum potential energy = Enthalpy.
  • Matter tends to attain maximum randomness = Entropy.
    • Entropy  least organized, most random state possible
s formula

∆S Formula

The difference between the sum of the entropies of the products and the sum of the entropies of the reactants:

∆S =Sproducts - Sreactants

law of disorder

Law of Disorder

Drive towards maximum randomness

Things tend to go towards randomness

measuring entropy
Measuring Entropy
  • Entropy increases when phases change from solid to liquid to gas
  • Solid = least entropy
  • Gas = greatest entropy
slide6

Phase change:

solid  liquid  gas

Entropy increases +∆S

  • Dissolving:

NaCl(s)  Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Entropy increases +∆S

+∆S

-∆S

Gas

Solid

slide7

For Reactions:

    • Entropy increases on the side with more moles (particles)
    • Compounds are more organized (less entropy)

2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O

Entropy decreases (-∆S)

3 mol reactants  2 mol products

Entropy increases (+ ∆S)

2 mol reactants  3 mol products

slide8

Temperature Change:

    • As temp. increases, ∆S increases
    • 50°C  100°C
      • Entropy Increases (+ ∆S)
spontaneous reactions
Spontaneous Reactions

Enthalpy Change = -∆H

Entropy Change = +∆S

Change is favored when:

  • Decrease in potential energy (-∆H)
    • exothermic
  • Increase in entropy (+∆S)
learning check
Learning Check

What is the enthalpy and entropy change in the combustion of ethane, ∆H = -2850 KJ?

2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g)  4CO2(g) + 6H2O(g)

Enthalpy =

Decreases (-∆H)

Entropy =

Increases (+∆S)

Reaction will be spontaneous due to decrease in potential energy and increase in entropy.

free energy g
Free Energy (∆G)
  • Depends on ∆H, ∆S, and temp

∆G = ∆H - T∆S

-∆G  spontaneous rxn

+∆G  non-spontaneous rxn

∆G = 0  equilibrium