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Propositum : DWBAT identify and correct common errors from the Term 3 IA; . 4/7/14. Facite Nunc : Take the following handouts: ‘Term 3 IA Review’ (Class Notes) ‘Future Participles’ (Class Notes) Begin working on your ‘Term 3 IA Review’ handout with your table members PENSUM #103 :

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    1. Propositum: DWBAT identify and correct common errors from the Term 3 IA; 4/7/14 FaciteNunc: • Take the following handouts: • ‘Term 3 IA Review’ (Class Notes) • ‘Future Participles’ (Class Notes) • Begin working on your ‘Term 3 IA Review’ handout with your table members PENSUM #103: Complete pgs. 1 and 2 of your ‘Future Participles’ hanout QUIZ ON FRIDAY ON FUTURE PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDIVES

    2. Section A: TRANSLATION • urbeRōmaecōnsulecarēnte, Cinna, fīdissimusamīcusMariō, duōsannōscōnsulappositus est. • What grammatical construction isurbeRōmaecōnsulecarēnte? ________________ • Translate it LITERALLY: _________________________________________________ • Translate it CAUSALLY: _________________________________________________ ablative absolute with the city of Rome lacking a consul Because the city of Rome was lacking a consul

    3. Section A: TRANSLATION 2. plūrēsmīlitum, īratissimōrum ob route magnum per montēsniveiorēs, sentiēbantsaevumdūcem ad suōsmortēssēceleriterdūctūrumesse. • The head verb is __________________ • The infinitive inside indirect speech is __________________ • The head verb is in the_________________ tense, and the infinitive in indirect speech is in the _________________ tense; therefore that verb translates as “________________________” • suōs and sē refer back to the _________________, which is _____________________. sentiēbant dūctūrumesse imperfect future would lead subject of the head verb more of the soldiers

    4. Section A: TRANSLATION 3. mīlitēsduōrumcōnsulumāSullāvictīsunt et is nuntiāvitsīaliquemsibioppositūrumesse, illumacerrimāsconsecutiōnēslatūrumesse. • The head verb is __________________ • The infinitives inside indirect speech are __________________________ and _____________________________. • The head verb is in the_________________ tense, and the infinitives in indirect speech are in the _________________ tense; therefore the infinitives translate as “________________________________” and _________________________________. • sibi refers back to the _________________, which is _____________________. nuntiāvit oppositūrumesse latūrumesse perfect future would oppose would endure subject of the head verb he (Sulla)

    5. Section A: TRANSLATION SCAVENGER HUNT! Find the following grammatical constructions within the translation sentences: • A COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE: ____________________; translates to “____________________” • Change it to positive ____________________; translates to “_________________” • Change it to superlative: ____________________; translates to “_________________” • A SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE: ____________________; translates to “____________________” • A -L/R- SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE: ____________________; translates to “____________________” • A POSITIVE ADVERB: ____________________; translates to “____________________” • Change it to comparative: ____________________; translates to “_________________” • Change it to superlative: ____________________; translates to “_________________” niveiorēs rather snowy/snowier niveī snowy niveissimī snowiest īratissimōrum angriest/most angry acerrimās bitterest/harshest celeriter quickly celerius more quickly/rather quickly celerrimē most quickly

    6. Section B: MULTIPLE-CHOICE (Marius) domumrediit et in lectōmaestissimēdīxitnullumvirumFortūnaevītameiusconfidēredebēre. (lines 1-2) *confidō, confidere, confisus sum to trust, entrust(semi-deponent) Translation: 4. The best translation of maestissimē is: a. sorrowful b. sorrowfully c. very sorrowful d. very sorrowfully (He/Marius) returned home and most/very sorrowfully in (his) bed said that no man ought to have entrusted his life to Fortune.

    7. Section B: MULTIPLE-CHOICE (Marius) domumrediit et in lectōmaestissimēdīxitnullumvirumFortūnaevītameiusconfidēredebēre. (lines 1-2) *confidō, confidere, confisus sum to trust, entrust(semi-deponent) Translation: 5. The subject-accusative of indirect speech in this sentence is: a. nullumvirum b. Fortūnae c. vītam d. domum (He/Marius) returned home and most/very sorrowfully in (his) bed said that no man ought to have entrusted his life to Fortune.

    8. Section B: MULTIPLE-CHOICE (Marius) domumrediit et in lectōmaestissimēdīxitnullumvirumFortūnaevītameiusconfidēredebēre. (lines 1-2) *confidō, confidere, confisus sum to trust, entrust(semi-deponent) Translation: 6. This sentence illustrates that: a. Marius wished that Fortune would have allowed him to completely destroy Rome before he died. b. Marius wished that Sulla would have died before him. c. Marius was thinking that he ought to greet the Fates warmly after death. d. Marius was thinking that nobody should relinquish control of his life to Fortune. (He/Marius) returned home and most/very sorrowfully in (his) bed said that no man ought to have entrusted his life to Fortune.

    9. Section B: MULTIPLE-CHOICE (Marius) domumrediit et in lectōmaestissimēdīxitnullumvirumFortūnaevītameiusconfidēredebēre. (lines 1-2) *confidō, confidere, confisus sum to trust, entrust(semi-deponent) Translation: CIRCLE ONE: eiusis reflexive/ personal; therefore it must/ cannot refer to the subject of the __________________________. 7. eius refers to: a. Marius b. Sulla c. Fortūna d. nullumvirum (He/Marius) returned home and most/very sorrowfully in (his) bed said that no man ought to have entrusted his life to Fortune. head verb

    10. FUTURE PARTICIPLES • Complete the STATIM: Participle Review with your table members (5 minutes) • When you are done, raise your hand to let me know

    11. THE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE • Formula = ____________________ - __________ + ____________ declension endings • N.B. Add esse to the form the ____________________ ____________________ infinitive • Literal Translation = “ ______________________________” or “ ______________________________” 4th PP us ūrus 2-1-2 future active about to _________ going to _________

    12. 1. exercitusRōmaemīlitēsSullae, petitūrōsurbemipsam, vincereconātus est. petitūrōs • Participle = ___________________________ • The participle is modifying the noun _____________________ • LITERAL translation of the participle =______________________ • RELATIVE translation =_________________________________ • TEMPORAL translation =_____________________________ • CAUSAL translation =__________________________________ • Adversative translation = ______________________________ • Sentence translation: mīlitēs about to/going to attack who are about to/going to attack when/as they are about to attack because they are about to attack although they are about to attack The army of Rome tried to defeat the soldiers of Sulla, (because) they were about to attack the city itself.

    13. Propositum: DWBAT identify and translate future active and passive participles 4/8/14 FaciteNunc: • Take out your ‘Future Participles’ handout from yesterday • Take out a red pen for HW corrections PENSUM #104: Complete your ‘Future Participles’ packet in full QUIZ ON FRIDAY ON FUTURE PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDIVES

    14. 2. Sulla, suīsinimīcīspoenāsdatūrus, Rōmamgressus est. datūrus • Participle = ___________________________ • The participle is modifying the noun ______________________ • LITERAL translation of the participle =______________________ • RELATIVE translation =_________________________________ • TEMPORAL translation =________________________________ • CAUSAL translation =___________________________________ • Adversative translation = _______________________________ • Sentence translation: (masc., sg., nom.) Sulla about to give who was about to give when he was about to give because he was about to give although he was about to give Sulla, who was about to give punishments to his enemies, approached Rome.

    15. 3. “ignōratiōfutūrōrummalōrumūtiliorest quam scientia.” (Cicero) futūrōrum • Participle = ___________________________ • The participle is modifying _________________ • LITERAL translation of participle=_____________ • Sentence translation: malōrum about to be Ignorance of the evils which are about to be is more useful than knowledge.

    16. The GERUNDIVE or FUTURE PASSIVE ParticipleThe gerundive is a passive adjective, and can be thought of as Latin’s future passive participle. • Formula = ________________ + __________ + ____________ declension endings • Literal Translation = “ __________________” or, to emphasize futurity “ _______________” Present Stem -nd- 2-1-2 about to be _______ed going to be _______ed

    17. 1. Decline mereō, merēre, meruī, meritusto earn, to obtainas a GERUNDIVE. merendae merendī merendī merendō merendae merendō merendam merendum merendum merendā merendō merendō merenda merendae merendī merendārum merendōrum merendōrum merendīs merendīs merendīs merendās merendōs merenda merendīs merendīs merendīs

    18. 2. Decline mereō, merēre, meruī, meritusto earn, to obtainAS A GERUND. merendī merendō merendum merendō

    19. Cōgitāte… 1. In what key ways do gerunds and future passive participles differ in form? 2. Why do gerundives need to decline with in gender and number, but gerunds don’t? • Gerunds only exist in the singular. • Gerunds don’t have a nominative. • Gerunds only have one gender. Gerundives decline with gender and number because they act like adjectives that must AGREE with other nouns in GNC. Gerunds don’t because they are noun forms and don’t need to agree with any other words.

    20. Exerceāmus!Group work • Complete the translations of sentences 1-3 and the Gerund vs. Gerundive graphic organizer on pg. 3 • When you finish, raise your hand for a CHECK • If you finish early, you may move on to your HW (pg. 4 – Participle Practice: Forms)

    21. Propositum: DWBAT identify and translate passive periphrastics and dative of agent 4/9/14 FaciteNunc: • Take a ‘Passive Periphrastic and Dative of Agent’ handout from the front of the room • Take out your ‘Future Participles’ handout from yesterday for inspection and leave it on your desk in front of your • Complete the STATIM at the top of pg. 1 – participle synopsis PENSUM #105 (Due Friday): Complete your ‘Passive Periphrastic and Dative of Agent’ packet in full QUIZ ON FRIDAY ON FUTURE PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDIVES

    22. Participle Synopsis dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dīctus: to say dīcēns saying dīctūrus dīcendus about to say about to be said dīctus having been said

    23. The Passive Periphrasticand Dative of Agent • The Passive Periphrastic is a passive verb form consisting of the gerundive and a form of sum, esse. The gerundive, as an adjective, will agree with the subject of sum, esse and act as a predicate adjective. Latin Formula = noun + gerundive + form of sum, esse English Translation = ________ must be/will have to be/had to be ____________ed

    24. The Passive Periphrastic • Unlike the regular gerundive, which is simply a verbal adjective with an “-ing” translation (ex. legendīslibrīsby reading books), the passive periphrastic expresses obligation or necessity. So liberlegendusest would mean “the book must be read”, rather than simply “the book is about to be read” or “the book is being read”.

    25. Dative of Agent • The DATIVE OF AGENT has the same function of the ablative of agent, but is only used with passive periphrastic constructions • liberlegendusmihiest = the book must be read BY ME

    26. Passive Periphrastic and Dative of Agent • hic libermihi cum cūrālegenduserit • this book will have to be read by me with care • illafēmina omnibus laudandaest • that woman must be praised by everyone • paxdūcibusnōstrīspetendaerat • peace had to be sought by our leaders.

    27. Write out and translate the following sentences: • pax cum CarthāgineRōmaeadquirenda est. • MithridatesSullaeceleritervicenduserat. • fortīconsulīRōmaregendaerit. Peace with Carthage must be obtained by Rome. Mithridates had to be conquered quickly by Sulla. Rome will have to be ruled by a strong consul.

    28. Exerceāmus!(10 min.) • Translate the following authentic Latin sentences involving the passive periphrastic. Put a plus sign over the dative of agent in each one. • Raise your hand for a group work check when you are done

    29. Exerceāmus!Translate the following authentic Latin sentences involving the passive periphrastic. Put a plus sign over the dative of agent in each one • Carthagōdēlenda est. (Cato) 2. haecomniavulnerabellītibinuncsānandaerunt. (Cicero) 3. ad ūtilitātemvītaeomniacōnsiliafactaquenōbīsregendasunt. (Tacitus) 4. Caesarīomniaūnō tempore agenda erant. (Caesar) Carthage must be destroyed. All these wounds of war will now have to be healed by you. All plans and deeds must be ruled by us for the benefit of life. All things had to be done by Caesar at/during one time (at once.)

    30. Quiserat Horace? • 65-7 B.C. • Wrote poetry, satire, letters, ranging in tone from sarcastic and humorous to serious and contemplative • Close to Maecenas, righthand man to Octavian (later Augustus) during Octavian’s rise to power and role as first emperor of Rome

    31. Propositum: DWBAT identify and translate passive periphrastics and dative of agent 4/9/14 FaciteNunc: • Take out your ‘Passive Periphrastic and Dative of Agent’ handout from Wednesday • Reflect with your table members: • What was one thing you found challenging about the Horace passages? What was challenging about it? PENSUM #106: otiōvestrōfruāminī!

    32. Dē Cupiditāte – Horace, Epistluae1.1.53 • Homōstultus, “Ōcīvēs, cīvēs,” dīcit, “pecūnia ante omniaquaerendaest; virtūs et probitās post pecūniam.” • Pecūniaeautemcupiditāsfugienda est. Fugiendaetiamestcupiditāsglōriae; ēripitenimlībertātem. Neque imperia semperpetendasuntnequesemperaccipienda; etiamdēpōnendanōnnumquam. A stupid man says, “Oh citizens, citizens, money must be sought before all things; virtue and honesty after money.” However the desire for money must be fled (avoided). Also the desire for glory must be avoided; Neither must commands for (it) takes away (one’s) freedom. must they always be accepted; (authority) be sought always nor also they must not never be put aside.

    33. Dē Cupiditāte – Horace, Epistluae1.1.53 • What virtues and vices are mentioned by Horace? • Which ones should be sought and which avoided? • Why is Horace framing this in the words of a “homōstultus”?

    34. QUIZ: Future Participles, Passive Periphrastic and Dative of Agent • You have the remainder of your recitation to finish your quiz

    35. Propositum: DWBAT analyze the structure of the IB syllabus for Latin and identify significant features of Ovid’s biography and literature 4/23/14 FaciteNunc: • Take the following handouts from the front of the room and place them into the Reference Info. section of your binders • IB Syllabus (SL and HL) • PubliusOvidiusNaso • Take out a highlighter or non-black/blue pen • Silently read over the IB syllabus handout and annotate it for clarifying questions and most important information PENSUM #107: Mini QUIZ on PubliusOvidiusNaso tomorrow (5 short answer questions)

    36. IB Latin Assessments

    37. IB Latin Assessments On the day of your IB Examinations: Paper 1 = translating 1 excerpt from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, which may or may not be an excerpt studied in class Paper 2 = answering questions on reading comprehension, style, influence, significance, and possibly translating parts of a selection of passages studied in class (TBD) During the course of the year: Part III- Individual study = an independent research paper written on a topic of the student’s choosing involving copious primary and secondary research

    38. IB Latin at TBLS • Your assessments during your 3rd and 4th years of Latin will all be modeled after the types of assessments you will have to complete during your IB Examinations • Your assessments up until this point have been modeled after those Papers • Paper 1 = Translatiō • Paper 2 = Explicatiō/Midterm/IA

    39. Suggested Preparation for Paper 1 – Ovid’s Metamorphoses “The aim of the Latin syllabus is to teach a facility with reading and understanding, and to develop some sensitivity to style. After grammar has been taught, selected reading of the prescribed author should be pursued. In paper 1, students are asked to produce a translation with the use of a dictionary, and proper dictionary skills should be developed in class to assist with all areas of the syllabus. It is best practice for teachers to encourage students to familiarize themselves with the most common words in prescribed authors.”

    40. Preparation for Paper 1 – Ovid’s Metamorphoses • Knowing that you will have to translate a random passage from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, what kind of preparation should we be doing in order to make that task as manageable as possible? • What do you think “dictionary skills” mean? • What kinds of “dictionary skills” do you currently have? (Don’t say “none”) Familiarity with Ovid’s style of writing, themes in the Metamorphoses, his vocabulary, as many of the passages from his work as possible Being able to determine what part of speech a word is (noun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition) and how to use that information to find the correct definition in a dictionary; how to chose the best definition based on context for a word Knowing how to determine the part of speech of many kinds words; knowing how words (verbs, nouns) appear in a dictionary; knowing that you should chose one definition from many based on context

    41. PubliusOvidiusNaso43 B.C. – 17 A.D. • Biographical details • PubliusOvidiusNaso, more commonly known as “Ovid”, was born in , a town northeast of Rome, to an equestrian family. • His father, a lawyer, wanted him to pursue a legal career and sent him to Rome to study and later to , • After holding a few minor political positions, and the death of his brother, Ovid abandoned his political career and decided to pursue poetry around the age of 16, a decision which his father disapproved of. Sulmo rhetoric Athens

    42. PubliusOvidiusNaso43 B.C. – 17 A.D. • Biographical details • Around the time of his first recitation of his work in 25 B.C. he became part of a literary circle of M. V. MessallaCorvinus and , a close confidant of the emperor Augustus. • Ovid was friends with the poets (a love elegist) and , and acquainted with ­ and (another love elegist). • In 8 A.D. he was exiled to Tomi on the Black Sea by Augustus for a carmenet error (“a and a “), though the reasons surrounding his exile are unknown and highly contested Maecenas Propertius Horace Tibullus Virgil poem mistake

    43. Exile to Tomis

    44. Exile to Tomis • The Julian Marriage Laws of 18 BC, which promoted monogamous marriage to increase the population's birth rate, were fresh in the Roman mind. Ovid's writing in the ArsAmatoria concerned the serious crime of adultery, and he may have been banished for these works which appeared subversive to the emperor's moral legislation. However, in view of the long time that had elapsed between the publication of this work (1 BC) and the exile (AD 8), some authors suggest that Augustus used the poem as a mere justification for something more personal. (Jose Gonzalez Vasquez) • Ovid may have been involved in an adulterous affair between Augustus’ granddaughter Julia and a senator, DecimusJuniusSilanus, for which Julia was also exiled

    45. Works • Amores (“Loves”) • Published in 16 B.C. and 8 B.C. • In two editions, the first in 5 books, the second in 3 • Series of erotic poems addressed to a lover, Corinna • Heroides (“The Heroines”) • Published in 15 B.C. • 21 letters written by famous women of mythology and history to the male lovers who had wronged them (ex. Penelope to Odysseus, Dido to Aeneas, Ariadne to Theseus) • ArsAmatoria (“The Art of Love”)andRemediaAmoris (“The Cure for Love”) • 3 books, first 2 written for men, the last for women • Parody of didactic (teaching) poetry meant as a manual for seducing and attracting members of the opposite sex • The RemediaAmoris written for those suffering from broken hearts

    46. WORKS • Metamorphoses (“The Transformations”) • Finished in 8 A.D. • 15 book epic chronicling mythological stories of physical transformation of gods and mortals from the beginning of time up until the age of Augustus • Considered the ultimate, encyclopedic catalogue of myth and mythology • Fasti (“The Festivals”) • Finished 8 A.D., though incomplete • Poem written in 6 books about the Roman calendar (1 book for each month January to June) and the origins of Roman holidays, rituals, traditions, and cultural phenomena • Tristia (“Sorrows”) andEpistulae ex Ponto (“Letters from the (Black) Sea”) • Written during Ovid’s life in exile at Tomi • 5 and 4 books, respectively • Often personal in nature, sad and despairing in tone, these poems detail his journey to and life in Tomi and advocate for his return from exile back to Rome

    47. Style • Ovid has often been praised for his versatility; he is able to switch between different genres of writing and poetry, from love elegy to almanac to encyclopedic catalogue, with ease and adroit skill • Ovid sought to innovate in his writing- unlike many of his predecessors he did not express strong moralistic views, nor did he seek to mimic or replicate famous works of literature that had come before him in any traditional sense • The language of Ovid’s poetry is often described as • Musical, employing many poetic devices which affect the sound of his poetry • Expressive, creating vivid images and invoking strong emotions • Rhetorical, drawing influences from his legal training which can be seen in his enumeration, transitions between topics, and effects of surprise

    48. TheMetamorphoses • Bucking tradition, Ovid wrote a 15-book epic in dactylic hexameter (a type of meter reserved for epic poetry) about a decidedly un-heroic topic- a series of mythological stories all tied together by the theme of transformation (god or human into animal, tree, rock, etc.) • While he based his topic off of other famous works of literature which catalogued transformations or explained the origins of natural phenomena (Hesiod’s Theogony and Catalogue; Callimachus’ Aitia; Nicander of Colophon’s Heteroeumena), he chose to do so while writing in the epic genre, traditionally reserved for stories of heroes and their heroic deeds • The scope of Ovid’s work is infinite- beginning his first book at the beginning of time and creation of the world and ending his last with the deification of Julius Caesar while praising the emperor Augustus • There are about 250 different mythological episodes within the Metamorphoses, which are all linked by a wide variety of connections, ranging from geography (stories that all take place in Thebes in Book 3), to commonalities in theme (stories about the lovers of the gods, or the gods’ jealousies and revenge) or even contrasts in theme (stories about pious mortals juxtaposed with stories about impious ones), to genealogical relations or similarities in the kinds of transformations that take place (different kinds of flowers or birds).

    49. TheMetamorphoses: Why it is Praised Today • TRANSFORMATIONS are mythical, fantastical, awe-inspiring, and yet... • RELATABLE characters whose REAL HUMAN EMOTIONS lead to these transformations • Lust/ Love • Greed • Arrogance and Self-Indulgence • Anger and Jealousy

    50. TheMetamorphoses:Lust/ Love Juppiter and Io Daphne and Apollo