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UNECE Training Workshop on Census Questionnaire Design for SPECA member countries (Dushanbe, 12-16 March 2007). Housing characteristics. Paolo Valente (UNECE). Content of presentation:. General framework on housing: Concepts, definitions and aggregates Reference units for housing topics

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housing characteristics

UNECE Training Workshop on Census Questionnaire Design for SPECA member countries (Dushanbe, 12-16 March 2007)

Housing characteristics

Paolo Valente (UNECE)

content of presentation
Content of presentation:
  • General framework on housing:
    • Concepts, definitions and aggregates
  • Reference units for housing topics
  • Housing arrangements (New CORE topic)
  • Housing topics:
    • Review of the main housing topics
    • Main changes in new CES Census Rec.
general framework on housing

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

New framework

(para. 589 of CES

Census Rec.):

general framework on housing4

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Important component: Conventional dwellings

general framework on housing5
General framework on housing
  • Conventional dwellings are structurally separate and independent premises, which are designed for permanent human habitation at a fixed location and are not used wholly for non-residential purposes at the time of the census
  • “Separate” meanssurrounded by walls and covered by a roof so that a person, or a group of persons, can isolate themselves from other persons
  • “Independent” means having direct access from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery or grounds. Occupants can enter and leave without passing through another household’s accommodation.
general framework on housing6
General framework on housing
  • Conventional dwellings. Definition on CES Rec.:

“A room or suite of rooms and its accessories in a permanent building or structurally separated part thereof which, by the way it has been built, rebuilt or converted, is designed for habitation by a single household all the year round, such as a house or apartment”

  • “Permanent building“ can be defined in terms of:
    • constructed to be structurally stable for at least ten years
    • method of construction
    • building materials used
general framework on housing7

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Occupied conventional dwellings: are theusual residence of one or more persons

general framework on housing8

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Seasonal and secondary dwellings: reserved for use by the household but NO persons have usual residence in the dwelling

general framework on housing9

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Other vacant dwellings: Includes dwellings that are vacant for sale, rent, demolition or other reasons

general framework on housing10

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Other housing units (new term in 2010 CES Rec.)

 In 2000 rec. called “non-conventional dwellings”

general framework on housing11
General framework on housing

Other housing units do not meet the requirements to be considered conventional dwellings because either:

  • are mobile, semi permanent or improvised, or
  • are not designed for human habitation

BUT…

They are nevertheless used at the time of the censusas the usual residence of one or more personswho are members of one or more private households

general framework on housing12
General framework on housing

Categories of “other housing units”:

a) Mobile housing units (caravans, tents, boats, ships…)

b) Semi-permanent housing units: built with available material (wood, bricks, straw) for the purpose of habitation but expected to last for a limited time (huts, cabins…)

c) Other housing units designed for habitation: makeshift shelters built of waste materials (shacks, shanties…)

d) Other housing units NOT designed for habitation: premises in permanent or semi permanent buildings that have not been built, rebuilt, converted or arranged for human habitation (stables, barns, mills, garages, warehouses, offices, caves…)

general framework on housing13
General framework on housing

REMEMBER:

Other housing units

should be counted ONLY

if they are used at the time of the census

as the usual residence

of one or more persons

general framework on housing14

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Important aggregate: HOUSING UNITS  Most CORE topics refer mainly to housing units

general framework on housing15

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Collective living quarters

general framework on housing16
General framework on housing

Collective living quarters include premises which are designed for habitation by large groups of individuals or several households

and…

are used at the time of the census as the usual residence of at least one person

general framework on housing17
General framework on housing

Categories of “collective living quarters”:

a) Hotels, rooming houses and other lodging houses(including: motels, inns, boarding houses, pensions, rooming houses and other lodging houses…)

b) Institutions: premisesdesigned for habitation by a large group of persons subject to a common authority or regime or bound by a common objective or personal interest (student residences, hospitals, welfare institutions, monasteries, convents, military and police barracks, prisons and reformatories, workers dormitories…)

c) Camps: semi permanent or temporary structure designed for the temporary accommodation of groups of persons with common activities or interests (camps for military, refugees, workers…)

general framework on housing18

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Important aggregate: LIVING QUARTERS  Some important CORE topics refer to living quarters

general framework on housing19

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

 Change in 2010 CES Rec.: Seasonal, secondary and vacant dwellings are NOT included in LIVING QUARTERS

general framework on housing20

Types of housing

Conventional dwellings

Other housing units

Collective living quarters

Homeless with noplaceof u.r.

Occupied conv. dwel.

Seasonal & sec. dwel.

Othervacantdwel.

General framework on housing

Homeless with no place of usual residence

 Discussed in session on Household and family

general framework on housing21
General framework on housing

The homeless – Reminder:

  • Not member of private or institutional households
  • No usual residence in housing unit or collective living quarter

CES Census Recommendations (para. 610):

Two categories of homelessnesscan be considered:

1) Primary homelessness: Persons living in the street without a shelter that falls within the scope of living quarters (housing unit or collective living quarter)

2) Secondary homelessness: Persons with no place of usual residence who move frequently between various types of accommodations (including dwellings, institutions for the homeless or other living quarters).

housing topics reference units
Housing topics – Reference units

MOST topics refer to characteristics and amenities of HOUSING UNITS (occup. conv. dwel. + other housing units)

Exceptions:

Few topics refer to LIVING QUARTERS(incl. collective l.q.):

  • Type of living quarters (CORE topic)
  • Location of living quarters (CORE topic)
  • Number of occupants (CORE topic)

One topic refers to ALL CONVENTIONAL DWELINGS:

  • Occupancy status of conventional dwellings (CORE topic)

One “special” topic refers to PERSONS:

  • Housing arrangements (new CORE topic)

 See chart 5 on CES Census Rec. (after para. 591)

housing topics reference units23
Housing topics – Reference units

Information on occupied conventional dwellings should be given priority and presented separately

  • When information is also obtained for other types of housing (including other housing units, seasonal and secondary dwellings, vacant dwellings, and collective living quarters), it should be kept separate from information on occupied conventional dwellings and presented separately for each different type of housing.
  • If information is obtained on collective living quarters, when possible it should be presented separately for the different categories of collective living quarters
housing topics housing arrangements
Housing topics:Housing arrangements

New CORE topic in 2010 Census Rec.

  • It refers to PERSONS and cover the whole population
  • Can be considered at the level of individuals or households

CES Census Recommendations (para. 619):

Recommended classification by housing arrangement :

(1.0) Persons with usual res. in a conventional dwelling

(2.0) Persons with usual res. in an other housing unit

(3.0) Persons with usual res. in a collective living quarter

(4.0) Persons who are not usual residents in any living quarter category, such as homeless or other people moving between temporary accommodations

housing topics type of living quarters core topic
Housing topics:Type of living quarters (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 Rec. (para. 623):

(1.0) Occupied conventional dwellings

(2.0) Other housing units

(2.1) Mobile units

(2.2) Semi permanent units

(2.3) Other units designed for habitation

(2.4) Other units not designed for habitation

(3.0) Collective living quarters

(3.1) Hotels, rooming houses and other lodging houses

(3.2) Institutions

(3.3) Camps

Classification is OPTIONAL at the two-digit level

 REMINDER: change in 2010 CES Rec.: Seasonal, secondary and vacant dwellings are NOT included inLIVING QUARTERS

housing topics occupancy status of conventional dwellings core topic
Housing topics: Occupancy status of conventional dwellings (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 Rec. (para. 628):

(1.0) Occupied conv. dwel. with one or more usual res.

(2.0) Conventional dwellings with no usual residents

(2.1) Dwellings reserved for seasonal or secondary use

(2.2) Vacant dwellings

(2.2.1) Vacant for sale

(2.2.2) Vacant for rent

(2.2.3) Vacant for demolition

(2.2.4) Other vacant or not known

(3.0) Conventional dwellings with residents not included in census (foreign nationals, etc.)

Classification is OPTIONAL at the three-digit level

housing topics availability and characteristics of secondary seasonal and vacant dwellings non core
Housing topics: Availability and characteristics of secondary, seasonal and vacant dwellings (non core)

 NEW non core topic in 2010 CES Census Rec.

  • From topic “Occupancy status of conventional dwellings”, the NUMBER is available of:

1) Dwellings reserved for seasonal or secondary use

2) Vacant dwellings

  • Some countries may wish to collect more information on unoccupied conventional dwellings to be able to produce more information on the whole dwelling stock
housing topics availability and characteristics of secondary seasonal and vacant dwellings
Housing topics: Availability and characteristics of secondary, seasonal and vacant dwellings

Countries may collect information on:

  • household availability of secondary, seasonal and vacant dwellings
  • different features of unoccupied conventional dwellings:
    • number of rooms
    • useful floor space
    • type of building
    • amenities (e.g. water, toilet, bathing, hot water, sewage system, heating, electricity)
    • other topics…
  • simplified versions of recommended classifications could be used

 REMEMBER: This information should be kept separate from information on occupied conventional dwellings

housing topics type of ownership core topic
Housing topics:Type of ownership (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 Rec. (para. 639):

(1.0) Owner occupied dwellings

(2.0) In co-operative ownership

(3.0) Rented dwellings

(3.1) In private ownership

(3.2) Owned by the local or central govt. and/or by non-profit org.

(3.3) Mixed ownership

(4.0) Other types of ownership

Classification is OPTIONAL at the two-digit level

housing topics useful floor space and or number of rooms of housing units core topic
Housing topics: Useful floor space and/or number of rooms of housing units (CORE topic)
  • Countries should collect at least one of the two:

1) Useful floor space

    • floor space measured inside the outer walls excluding non habitable cellars and attics
    • alternative: consider only floor space of “rooms”

2) Number of rooms

    • A “room” is defined as a space enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling, at least to a height of 2 metres above the ground, of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult (4 square metres at least) and at least 2 metres high over the major area of the ceiling.
    • kitchen counts as room if it corresponds to the definition above
    • kitchenette (less than 4 square metres) does NOT count as room
    • bathrooms and toilets do NOT count as rooms (even if they are more than 4 square metres)
housing topics useful floor space and or number of rooms of housing units core topic31
Housing topics: Useful floor space and/or number of rooms of housing units (CORE topic)
  • Additional definitions and classifications for “useful floor space” and “number of rooms” available in CES Census Rec. (paras. 645-650)
  • Preference should be given to “Useful floor space”
  • “Number of rooms” to be used when floor space is a concept not widely known to the population (ex.: UK)
housing topics density standard core topic
Housing topics: Density standard (CORE topic)
  • NEW derived CORE topic on overcrowding, based on useful floor space OR number of rooms
  • Best indicator: Useful floor space (in square metres) divided by the number of occupants in a housing unit

Recommended classification of useful floor space per occupant in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 653):

(1.0) Under 10 square metres per occupant

(2.0) 10 and less than 15 square metres per occupant

(3.0) 15 and less than 20 square metres per occupant

(4.0) 20 and less than 30 square metres per occupant

(5.0) 30 and less than 40 square metres per occupant

(6.0) 40 and less than 60 square metres per occupant

(7.0) 60 and less than 80 square metres per occupant

(8.0) 80 square metres and over per occupant

housing topics density standard core topic33
Housing topics: Density standard (CORE topic)
  • Alternative indicator: Number of rooms divided by the number of occupants in a housing unit

Recommended classification of number of rooms per occupant in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 654):

(1.0) Less than 0.5 room per occupant

(2.0) 0.5 and less than 1.0 room per occupant

(3.0) 1.0 and less than 1.25 rooms per occupant

(4.0) 1.25 and less than 1.5 rooms per occupant

(5.0) 1.5 and less than 2 rooms per occupant

(6.0) 2 and less than 2.5 rooms per occupant

(7.0) 2.5 and less than 3 rooms per occupant

(8.0) 3 or more rooms per occupant

housing topics amenities and facilities
Housing topics: Amenities and facilities
  • For the following topics on housing amenities and facilities, information should be reported separately and with priority for occupied conventional dwellings
  • Some countries may want to collect information on some of these topics also for:
    • other housing units
    • seasonal and secondary dwellings (difficult!)
    • vacant dwellings (difficult!)
    • collective living quarters
  • When this is done, information should be presented separately for the different aggregates
housing topics water supply system core topic
Housing topics: Water supply system (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 660):

(1.0) Piped water in the housing unit

(2.0) No piped water in the housing unit

  • More detailed OPTIONAL classification available
  • For this topic and the following ones, information should be reported separately and with priority for occupied conventional dwellings
  • Information could also be collected separately for:
    • other housing units
    • seasonal and secondary dwellings
    • vacant dwellings
housing topics toilet facilities core topic
Housing topics: Toilet facilities (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 664):

(1.0) Flush toilet in the housing unit

(2.0) No flush toilet in the housing unit

  • More detailed OPTIONAL classification available
housing topics bathing facilities core topic
Housing topics: Bathing facilities (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 667):

(1.0) Fixed bath or shower in the housing unit

(2.0) No fixed bath or shower in the housing unit

  • More detailed OPTIONAL classification available
housing topics hot water non core topic
Housing topics: Hot water (non core topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 670):

(1.0) Hot water tap in the housing unit

(2.0) No hot water tap in the housing unit

  • More detailed OPTIONAL classification available
housing topics type of sewage disposal system non core topic
Housing topics: Type of sewage disposal system (non core topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 672):

(1.0) Wastewater empties into a piped system connected to a public sewage disposal plant

(2.0) Wastewater empties into a piped system connected to a private sewage disposal plant (for example a septic tank)

(3.0) All other arrangements (for example waste water empties into an open ditch, a pit, a cesspool, a river, the sea, etc.)

(4.0) No sewage disposal system

housing topics kitchen non core topic
Housing topics: Kitchen (non core topic)
  • Definition of kitchen: room (or part of a room) of at least 4 square metres or two metres wide designed, equipped and used for the preparation of the principal meals (irrespective of whether it is also used for eating, sleeping or living)
  • If less than 4 square meters, it’s considered kitchenette
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 676):

(1.0) With a kitchen

(2.0) With a kitchenette

(3.0) Without a kitchen or kitchenette

(4.0) Cooking facilities are provided in another type of room

housing topics type of heating core topic
Housing topics: Type of heating (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 Rec. (para. 679):

(1.0) Central heating

(1.1) Central heating from an installation in the building or

in the housing unit

(1.2) Central heating from a community heating centre

(2.0) No central heating

(2.1) Heating facilities or equipment available in the occupied

conventional dwelling/other housing unit

(2.1.1) Stove

(2.1.2) Fireplace

(2.1.3) Portable electric heater

(2.1.4) Other

(2.2) No heating at all

Classification is OPTIONAL at the two and three-digit level

housing topics electricity non core topic
Housing topics: Electricity (non core topic)
  • Recommended classification in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 685):

(1.0) Electricity available in the housing unit

(2.0) No electricity available in the housing unit

housing topics dwellings by type of building core topic
Housing topics: Dwellings bytype of building (CORE topic)
  • Recommended classification of dwellings by type of building in 2010 CES Census Rec. (para. 701):

(1.0) Residential buildings

(1.1) Detached house (not attached to any other building)

(1.1.1) Detached house with one dwelling

(1.1.2) Detached house with two dwellings (one above the other)

(1.2) Semi-detached house (two attached dwellings)

(1.3) Row (or terraced) house (at least three attached dwellings)

(1.4) Apartment buildings

(1.4.1) Apartment buildings with three to nine dwellings

(1.4.2) Apartment buildings with 10 or more dwellings

(1.5) Other residential buildings

(2.0) Non-residential buildings

housing topics dwellings by period of construction core topic
Housing topics: Dwellings byperiod of construction (CORE topic)

 In terms of date when the building was completed

  • Recommended classification of dwellings by period of construction of building in 2010 Rec. (para. 705):

(1.0) Before 1919 (9.0) 2006 or later

(2.0) 1919 – 1945 (9.1) 2006

(3.0) 1946 – 1960 (9.2) 2007

(4.0) 1961 – 1970 (9.3) 2008

(5.0) 1971 – 1980 (9.4) 2009

(6.0) 1981 – 1990 (9.5) 2010

(7.0) 1991 – 2000 (9.6) 2011

(8.0) 2001 – 2005

  • Classification is OPTIONAL at the two-digit level
housing topics
Housing topics

Other non core topics:

  • Air-conditioning
  • Position of dwelling in the building
  • Accessibility to dwelling
  • Lift
  • Dwellings by number of floors in the building
  • Dwellings by materials of which specific parts of the building are constructed
  • Dwellings by state of repair of the building

 Definitions and recommended classification available in 2010 CES Census Recommendations